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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study subjects and households

From: Impact of exposure to cooking fuels on stillbirths, perinatal, very early and late neonatal mortality - a multicenter prospective cohort study in rural communities in India, Pakistan, Kenya, Zambia and Guatemala

Characteristic Pakistan Belgaum, India Nagpur, India Kenya Zambia Guatemala Total
Maternal age 16,235 19,728 8,443 9,973 3,876 7,554 65,809
 <20 626 (3.9) 1,835 (9.3) 168 (2.0) 2,183 (21.9) 984 (25.4) 1,276 (16.9) 7,072 (10.7)
 ≥20 15,609 (96.1) 17,893 (90.7) 8,275 (98.0) 7,790 (78.1) 2,892 (74.6) 6,278 (83.1) 58,737 (89.3)
Maternal education 16,239 19,611 8,439 9,974 3,847 7,555 65,665
 No formal schooling 13,595 (83.7) 4,464 (22.8) 216 (2.6) 295 (3.0) 422 (11.0) 1,610 (21.3) 20,602 (31.4)
 Primary 1,163 (7.2) 5,998 (30.6) 1,414 (16.8) 7,100 (71.2) 2,084 (54.2) 4,769 (63.1) 22,528 (34.3)
 Secondary 900 (5.5) 7,278 (37.1) 5,068 (60.1) 2,216 (22.2) 1,275 (33.1) 1,126 (14.9) 17,863 (27.2)
 University+ 581 (3.6) 1,871 (9.5) 1,741 (20.6) 363 (3.6) 66 (1.7) 50 (0.7) 4,672 (7.1)
Parity 16,238 19,384 8,446 9,976 3,876 7,554 65,474
 0 3,412 (21.0) 8,321 (42.9) 4,119 (48.8) 2,498 (25.0) 1,036 (26.7) 2,056 (27.2) 21,442 (32.7)
 1-2 5,325 (32.8) 9,746 (50.3) 4,110 (48.7) 4,000 (40.1) 1,455 (37.5) 2,664 (35.3) 27,300 (41.7)
 ≥3 7,501 (46.2) 1,317 (6.8) 217 (2.6) 3,478 (34.9) 1,385 (35.7) 2,834 (37.5) 16,732 (25.6)
Antenatal care 16,121 19,696 8,426 9,981 3,874 7,529 65,627
 Any 14,385 (89.2) 19,689 (100.0) 8,425 (100.0) 9,794 (98.1) 3,856 (99.5) 7,349 (97.6) 63,498 (96.8)
 None 1,736 (10.8) 7 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 187 (1.9) 18 (0.5) 180 (2.4) 2,129 (3.2)
Number of antenatal visits 13,557 16,004 8,420 9,794 787 7,349 55,911
 1 2,889 (21.3) 954 (6.0) 108 (1.3) 468 (4.8) 124 (15.8) 365 (5.0) 4,908 (8.8)
 2 4,617 (34.1) 1,268 (7.9) 84 (1.0) 1,674 (17.1) 148 (18.8) 735 (10.0) 8,526 (15.2)
 3 3,359 (24.8) 4,436 (27.7) 502 (6.0) 3,649 (37.3) 269 (34.2) 1,386 (18.9) 13,601 (24.3)
 ≥4 2,692 (19.9) 9,346 (58.4) 7,726 (91.8) 4,003 (40.9) 246 (31.3) 4,863 (66.2) 28,876 (51.6)
Delivery attendant 16,266 19,755 8,444 9,991 3,881 7,555 65,892
 Physician 4,066 (25.0) 11,761 (59.5) 4,963 (58.8) 200 (2.0) 83 (2.1) 2,785 (36.9) 23,858 (36.2)
 Nurse/Midwife 4,312 (26.5) 7,055 (35.7) 3,249 (38.5) 3,944 (39.5) 2,067 (53.3) 197 (2.6) 20,824 (31.6)
 No skilled birth attendant 7,888 (48.5) 939 (4.8) 232 (2.7) 5,847 (58.5) 1,731 (44.6) 4,573 (60.5) 21,210 (32.2)
Delivery location 16,275 19,755 8,445 9,989 3,881 7,555 65,900
 Facility 8,624 (53.0) 18,673 (94.5) 8,186 (96.9) 4,012 (40.2) 2,340 (60.3) 2,960 (39.2) 44,795 (68.0)
 Home/Other 7,651 (47.0) 1,082 (5.5) 259 (3.1) 5,977 (59.8) 1,541 (39.7) 4,595 (60.8) 21,105 (32.0)
Infant gender 16,135 19,722 8,390 9,983 3,873 7,551 65,654
 Male 8,472 (52.5) 10,335 (52.4) 4,353 (51.9) 5,069 (50.8) 2,038 (52.6) 3,816 (50.5) 34,083 (51.9)
 Female 7,663 (47.5) 9,387 (47.6) 4,037 (48.1) 4,914 (49.2) 1,835 (47.4) 3,735 (49.5) 31,571 (48.1)
Fuel used for cooking 16,276 19,755 8,450 9,995 3,881 7,555 65,912
 Electricity 50 (0.3) 69 (0.3) 83 (1.0) 6 (0.1) 434 (11.2) 3 (0.0) 645 (1.0)
 Liquified petroleum gas 51 (0.3) 3,503 (17.7) 2,837 (33.6) 15 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 576 (7.6) 6,982 (10.6)
 Natural gas 3,861 (23.7) 3 (0.0) 16 (0.2) 29 (0.3) 2 (0.1) 27 (0.4) 3,938 (6.0)
 Biogas 11 (0.1) 95 (0.5) 123 (1.5) 23 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 5 (0.1) 257 (0.4)
 Kerosene 61 (0.4) 198 (1.0) 370 (4.4) 132 (1.3) 6 (0.2) 16 (0.2) 783 (1.2)
 Coal 13 (0.1) 3 (0.0) 61 (0.7) 4 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.0) 84 (0.1)
 Charcoal 3 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 15 (0.2) 733 (7.3) 1,306 (33.7) 0 (0.0) 2,059 (3.1)
 Wood 11,968 (73.5) 11,735 (59.4) 4,589 (54.3) 9,033 (90.4) 2,120 (54.6) 6,925 (91.7) 46,370 (70.4)
 Straw, etc. 84 (0.5) 369 (1.9) 98 (1.2) 18 (0.2) 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 570 (0.9)
 Agricultural crop 19 (0.1) 2,398 (12.1) 179 (2.1) 2 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2,598 (3.9)
 Animal dung 154 (0.9) 1,380 (7.0) 78 (0.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1,612 (2.4)
 No food cooked in household/other 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 12 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 14 (0.0)
Smoking in primary household 16,272 19,667 8,439 9,993 3,858 7,555 65,784
 Daily 5,967 (36.7) 3,446 (17.5) 2,297 (27.2) 905 (9.1) 1,065 (27.6) 123 (1.6) 13,803 (21.0)
 Less than daily 259 (1.6) 982 (5.0) 1,681 (19.9) 1,537 (15.4) 232 (6.0) 370 (4.9) 5,061 (7.7)
 No smoking 10,046 (61.7) 15,239 (77.5) 4,461 (52.9) 7,551 (75.6) 2,561 (66.4) 7,062 (93.5) 46,920 (71.3)
Cooking location for primary household 16,272 19,666 8,430 9,992 3,858 7,555 65,773
 In the house 4,010 (24.6) 19,280 (98.0) 7,768 (92.1) 2,693 (27.0) 860 (22.3) 956 (12.7) 35,567 (54.1)
 In a separate building 9,149 (56.2) 284 (1.4) 559 (6.6) 6,930 (69.4) 2,462 (63.8) 3,424 (45.3) 22,808 (34.7)
 Outdoors 3,110 (19.1) 100 (0.5) 102 (1.2) 367 (3.7) 519 (13.5) 3,172 (42.0) 7,370 (11.2)
 Other 3 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 2 (0.0) 17 (0.4) 3 (0.0) 28 (0.0)