Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Risk factors for perinatal mortality

From: Impact of exposure to cooking fuels on stillbirths, perinatal, very early and late neonatal mortality - a multicenter prospective cohort study in rural communities in India, Pakistan, Kenya, Zambia and Guatemala

Characteristic Perinatal mortality (through day 7 of life) Alive on day 8 of life Relative risk adjusted for global network site and community (95 % confidence interval) Multivariate analysis - adjusted relative risk (95 % confidence interval)
N = 3,176 n (%) N = 62,736 n (%)
HAP exposure 3,176 62,736   
Polluting fuel 2,683 (84) 51,399 (82) 1.36 (1.25, 1.49) 1.44 (1.30, 1.61)
Clean fuel 493 (16) 11,337 (18) 1.00 1.00
Maternal age 3,172 62,637   
<20 294 (9) 6,778 (11) 1.14 (1.01, 1.29) 1.03 (0.90, 1.18)
≥20 2,878 (91) 55,859 (89) 1.00 1.00
Maternal education 3,168 62,497   
No formal schooling 1,589 (50) 19,013 (30) 1.27 (1.12, 1.45) 1.32 (1.15, 1.52)
Formal schooling 1,579 (50) 43,484 (70) 1.00 1.00
Parity 3,154 62,320   
0 1,079 (34) 20,363 (33) 1.36 (1.25, 1.47) 1.33 (1.21, 1.45)
1-2 1,053 (33) 26,247 (42) 1.00 1.00
≥3 1,022 (32) 15,710 (25) 1.27 (1.16, 1.39) 1.26 (1.13, 1.40)
Antenatal care 3,147 62,480   
Any 2,906 (92) 60,592 (97) 1.00 1.00
None 241 (8) 1,888 (3) 1.49 (1.28, 1.73) 1.35 (1.15, 1.58)
Delivery attendant 3,166 62,726   
Physician 1,236 (39.0) 22,622 (36.1) 1.00 1.00
Nurse/Midwife 861 (27.2) 19,963 (31.8) 0.72 (0.62, 0.83) 0.66 (0.57, 0.77)
No skilled birth attendant 1,069 (33.8) 20,141 (32.1) 0.79 (0.67, 0.95) 0.58 (0.41, 0.80)
Delivery location 3,176 62,724   
Facility 2,108 (66) 42,687 (68) 1.00 1.00
Home/Other 1,068 (34) 20,037 (32) 0.96 (0.83, 1.12) 1.05 (0.77, 1.44)
Infant gender 2,934 62,720   
Male 1,677 (57) 32,406 (52) 1.22 (1.13, 1.32) 1.21 (1.11, 1.31)
Female 1,257 (43) 30,314 (48) 1.00 1.00
Daily smoking in household 3,175 62,721   
Yes 888 (28) 14,547 (23) 1.02 (0.92, 1.13)  
No 2,287 (72) 48,174 (77) 1.00