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Table 1 Caesarean delivery rates among richer and poorer women in urban and rural areas, southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, 2003-2011

From: Cesarean section in sub-Saharan Africa

Country Caesarean delivery ratea Absolute differenceb (95 % CI)
  Rural poorer Rural richer Urban poorer Urban richer  
Southern Asia
Bangladesh 2.29 11.52 1.32 20.37 10.19 (7.73 to 12.65)
India 3.59 15.23 5.99 21.75 9.25 (7.44 to 11.05)
Nepal 1.51 7.03 4.40 17.24 2.63 (−1.97 to 7.23)
Pakistan 2.00 10.50 1.65 14.97 8.85 (6.53 to 11.18)
Western and central Africa
Benin 1.76 3.00 1.78 7.23 1.22 (0.26 to 2.19)
Burkina Faso 0.76 1.48 3.23 6.11 −1.75 (−3.35 to −0.16)
Cameroon 0.51 1.79 1.75 4.11 0.04 (−1.46 to 1.53)
Chad 0.18 0.33 0.00 1.53 0.33 (−0.19 to 0.84)
Cote d’Ivoire 1.39 7.17 4.04 7.30 3.13 (−9.19 to 15.44)
Ghana 3.22 9.50 4.49 10.80 5.01 (−0.27 to 10.30)
Guinea 0.38 1.77 0.71 4.76 1.06 (−0.71 to 2.83)
Mali 0.27 0.69 1.41 2.39 −0.72 (−2.23 to 0.79)
Niger 0.34 0.37 1.93 4.60 −1.57 (−5.66 to 2.53)
Nigeria 0.35 2.49 0.67 4.05 1.82 (0.99 to 2.66)
Senegal 1.37 2.89 2.62 9.77 0.28 (−2.15 to 2.70)
Eastern and southern Africa
Ethiopia 0.39 0.63 1.17 8.38 −0.54 (−2.20 to 1.12)
Kenya 3.21 9.41 2.69 11.16 6.72 (3.02 to 10.43)
Lesotho 3.35 7.71 8.23 11.50 −0.52 (−12.36 to 11.32)
Madagascar 0.32 2.08 1.62 5.89 0.46 (−1.87 to 2.80)
Malawi 3.23 4.96 2.94 8.44 2.02 (−1.31 to 5.34)
Mozambique 0.32 1.14 0.94 5.99 0.20 (−1.10 to 1.51)
Rwanda 5.01 6.70 7.51 17.53 −0.81 (−5.72 to 4.09)
Uganda 2.76 5.91 7.55 13.96 −1.63 (−8.02 to 4.76)
United Republic of Tanzania 2.30 4.55 0.95 9.96 3.60 (1.70 to 5.51)
Zambia 1.22 3.25 0.00 5.90 3.25 (1.79 to 4.70)
Zimbabwe 2.88 3.68 2.67 8.19 1.01 (−2.72 to 4.74)
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. a Caesarean delivery rates are expressed as percentages of the deliveries that ended in a live birth, excluding all but the last born of the neonates delivered in each multiple birth. They take into account sampling weights. The corresponding CIs take into account sampling weights, clustering and stratification. Women who lived in households that had wealth indices that fell above the national median value were considered to be “richer”, whereas other women were categorized as “poorer”
  3. b The caesarean delivery rate for the rural richer minus the corresponding rate for the urban poorer
  4. Note: The data presented come from the most recently published Demographic and Health Survey in each country