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Table 3 Day: night differences in fetal heart rate (FHR) parameters with respect to sex

From: Circadian changes and sex-related differences in fetal heart rate parameters

  Male (n = 30) Female (n = 24) P value
Change in bFHR (bpm) −7.3 [−3.3, −14.0] −5.7 [+1.0, −15.6] >0.4
Change in STV (ms) 1.2 [3.1, 0.2] 0.6 [1.6, −1.1] 0.076
Change in LTV (ms) 7.7 [17.6, 5.0] 3.5 [7.5, −5.6] 0.010
Change in RMSSD (ms) 0.0 [1.3 -1.3] −0.31 [0.4, −1.5] >0.2
  1. Data are shown as mean median [IQR]
  2. The day: night change in all measures of FHR variability was greater in male than female fetuses; this difference was significant with respect to long-term variation (LTV)
  3. bFHR basal fetal heart rate, STV short term variation, LTV long term variation, RMSSD root mean square of successive differences