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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of neonatal outcomes

From: Maternal predictors of neonatal outcomes after emergency cesarean section: a retrospective study in three rural district hospitals in Rwanda

  Alive and APGAR ≥ 7 (N = 401) Died, or APGAR < 7 (N = 40)  
  n % n % p-value
District hospital
 Butaro 147 91.3 14 8.7 0.486
 Kirehe 128 92.2 10 7.2
 Rwinkwavu 125 88.7 16 11.3
Mother’s age group (N = 395)   
 15–24 163 92.6 13 7.4 0.392
 25–34 171 90.5 18 9.5
 35+ 61 87.1 9 12.9
Number of prior pregnancies   (N = 37)  
 0 162 92.1 14 87.9 0.057
 1–3 172 94.0 11 6.0
 4+ 67 84.8 12 15.2
History of prior cesarean section (N = 320) (N = 29)  
 No 199 90.5 21 9.5 0.320
 Yes 121 93.8 8 6.2
Mother’s marital status (N = 371) (N = 33)  
 Single 28 87.5 4 12.5 0.317
 Ever married 343 92.2 29 7.8
Mother’s weight (N = 333) (N = 32)  
  ≤ 50 kg 21 87.5 3 12.5 0.060
 51–80 kg 303 92.1 31 7.9
  > 80 kg 9 75.0 3 25.0
Occupation (N = 372) (N = 37)  
 Farmer 338 90.6 35 9.3 0.261
 Employed 22 100.0 0 0.0
 Unemployed 12 85.7 2 14.3
Insurance (N = 379) (N = 36)  
 Community based health insurance 344 91.2 33 8.8 >0.999
 Private insurance 24 92.3 2 7.7
 None 11 91.7 1 8.3
Travel time from health center to the hospitalc (N = 321) (N = 37)  
 Health center attached to the hospital 88 96.7 5 3.3 0.022
 30–60 min 178 89.0 22 11.0
  > 60 min 55 84.6 10 15.4
Number of fetuses   (N = 39)  
 1 368 91.5 33 8.5 0.148
 2 33 84.6 6 15.4
Gestational age    
  < 38 weeks 54 91.5 5 8.5 0.936
 38–42 weeks 262 92.2 22 7.8
  > 42 weeks 85 86.7 13 13.3
Duration of contractions prior to admission (N = 258) (N = 21)  
  ≤ 12 h 75 90.4 8 9.6 0.656
 13–24 h 106 93.8 7 6.2
  > 24 h 77 92.8 6 7.2
Maternal blood pressure at admission (SBP/DBP) (N = 365) (N = 32)  
 Hypotension (<90/<50) 2 100.0 0 0.0 0.374
 Normal (90–140/50–90) 340 92.4 28 7.6
 Hypertension (>140/>90) 23 85.2 4 14.8
Oxygen saturation on admission (N = 195) (N = 21)  
 Low saturation (≤94%) 6 85.7 1 14.3 0.516
 Normal saturation (>94%) 189 90.4 20 9.6
Hemoglobin level (grams/deciliter) (N = 254) (N = 31)  
 Low (<12) 42 87.5 6 12.5 0.582
 Normal (12–16) 207 89.6 24 10.4
 Above range (>16) 5 83.3 1 16.7
Severity of cesarean section indication
 Very severe indicationa 158 87.8 22 12.2 0.064
 Severe indicationb 243 93.1 18 6.9
  1. SBP Systolic blood pressure
  2. DBP Diastolic blood pressure
  3. aVery severe indication included intrauterine rupture, fetal distress, cord prolapse and abruptio placentae
  4. bSevere indication was defined as preeclampsia, prolonged rupture of membranes, cephalo-pelvic disproportion, prolonged labor and mal-presentation
  5. cTravel time measured as average number of minutes for ambulance to travel from the health center to the district hospital