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Table 2 Correlation between maternal mortality ratio and health and health related indicators among developing countries, 2008–16

From: Correlates of maternal mortality in developing countries: an ecological study in 82 countries

Indicators N r p value
Maternal mortality (deaths per 100, 000 live births) 82 1  
Socio-economic variables
 GNI per capital (atlas method) 78 −0.586 <0.001
 Unemployment rate 72 0.035 0.75
 Health expenditure (% of GDP) 79 −0.077 0.48
 Adult Literacy rate (%) 76 −0.47 <0.001
 Early marriage (%) 65 0.64 <0.001
Health care system related variables
 Antenatal care coverage (%) 75 −0.65 <0.001
 Skilled delivery coverage (%) 76 −0.78 <0.001
 Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (%) 75 −0.424 <0.001
 Unmet need prevalence (%) 69 0.33 0.002
 Total fertility per a women 82 0.72 <0.001
 Crude birth rate per 1000 80 0.73 <0.001
 Ratio of Physician to 1000 population 56 −0.506 <0.001
 Ratio of Nurse and Midwife to 1000 population 66 −0.45 <0.001
 Improved water coverage (%) 79 −0.32 0.003
 Improved sanitation coverage (%) 80 −0.678 <0.001
Disease burden related variables
 TB incidence rate per 100, 000 population 82 0.242 0.027
 HIV incidence rate (15–49 years) 64 0.19 0.08
 Anemia during pregnancy prevalence (%) 80 0.48 <0.001