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Table 1 Accuracy and reproducibility studies of Pea Pod in full-term and preterm infants

From: Air displacement plethysmography (pea pod) in full-term and pre-term infants: a comprehensive review of accuracy, reproducibility, and practical challenges

Reference Country Comparison methods Inclusion/ Exclusion Number (sex) Number of tests Age at measurement Results
Animal and Animal Tissues
 Accuracy studies
  Sainz et al. (2003) [17] The US ADP, chemical analysis (CA), hydrostatic weighing Bovine tissue with wide ranges of mass (1.39–9.95 kg) and FM% (2.08–34.40%) 24 bovine tissue phantoms (NA) NR NA %Fat: ADP: 18.55% CA: 18.59% SD %fat ADP: 0.70% CA: 0.73% 95% LoA: −1.22-1. 13 %Fat
  Frondas-Chauty et al. (2012) [44] France ADP, chemical analysis Live piglets with wide ranges of mass (1.03–8.49 kg) and FM% (3.2–16.4%) 34 live piglets NR 2, 7, and 21 days %Fat: Pea Pod, 8.01 ± 4.03%; CA, 8.7 ± 4.1% Standard error of the estimate: 1.7% R2: 0.83
 Reproducibility studies
  Frondas-Chauty et al. (2012) [44] France ADP within a day Live piglets (aa above) 34 live piglets Four times 2, 7, and 21 days CV: ranging from 2.2 to 44.1% Root mean square CV: 17.9% CV values and median differed by age and %fat assessed using CA, with less variability in piglets with higher %fat
Full-Term Infants
 Accuracy studies
  Ma et al. (2004) [18] The US & China ADP, deuterium dilution Healthy f ull-term infants (mixed ethnicity; white and Chinese) 53 (28F, 25 M) 2 days and 2 tests on first day 5.8 (6.0) (0.4–24.4) wks %fat Pea Pod: 20.32–6.87%; deuterium: 20.39–6.68 95% LoA: − 6.84-6.71% (not related to body mass)
  Ellis et al. (2007) [45] The US ADP, 4-CM Full term healthy infants (mixed ethnic groups; white, African American, Hispanic American) 49 (24F, 25 M) Twice 8.0 (5.4) wks %Fat Pea Pod: 16.9 (6.5), 4-CM: 16.3 (7.2) (P = 0.62) 95% LoA: − 6.8-8.1%
  Fields et al. (2012) [49] The US Pea Pod, DXA Full term singleton infants, average for gestational age and with gestational age > =37, staying in hospital less than 3  days after delivery. nfants with congenital malformation were excluded. (ethnicity nor reported) 84 (47F, 37 M) NR 6 mo; 168.4 (3.8) days %Fat Pea Pod: 26.7 (4.7), DXA: 31.3 (3.6), (P < 0.001)
 Reproducibility studies
  Yao et al. (2003) [16] The US ADP within and between-days – data from multiple compartment studies of Butte et al. and Fomon et al Full term healthy infants with weight ranging between 3.40–7.45 kg and age ranging between 1.40–21.70  weeks (ethnicity not reported) 17 (8F, 9 M) 2 days and 2 tests per only one day 1.40–21.70  weeks (all 3 tests); %fat: ranging 7.49–32.08% SD %Fat within day: 0.52; between day: 0.60 CV %fat within day: 2.85; between day: 2.95 95% LoA within day: − 2.0-1.2%; between day: − 2.2-1.7% (not a function of behavioural state)
  Ma et al. (2004) [18] The US & China ADP within and between days Healthy full-term infants (mixed ethnicity; white and Chinese) 36 (16F, 20 M) 2 days and 2 tests on first day 7.6 (7.2) (0.4–21.7) wks SD %fat within day: 0.69%; between day: 0.72% CV %fat within day: 4.94; between day: 5.10% 95% LoA within day: − 2.7-3.1%; between day: − 2.9-1.9 (not a function of body f atness)
  Ellis et al. (2007) [45] The US ADP within day Full term healthy infants (mixed ethnic groups; white, African American, Hispanic American) 31 (18F, 13 M) Twice 6.0 (3.3) wks SD %fat within: 0.7% CV %fat within: 7.9% 95% LoA: − 2.3-3.1%
Pre-Term Infants
 Accuracy studies
  Roggero et al. (2012) [50] Italy Pea Pod, deuterium dilution Preterm singleton infants with gestational age = < 36  weeks were included. Also term infants with gestational age > =37 were included. Infants aged > 1 mo of age, with congenital diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, respiratory distress syndrome, or severe brain, metabolic, cardiac, or gastrointestinal diseases were excluded. 10 (4F, 6 M) NR <  1 month %fat Pea Pod: 5.67 (1.84), deuterium dilution: 5.99 (2.56), P = 0.53 95% LoA: −3.4-2.76% (not a function of mean values)
  Forsum et al. (2016) [51] Sweden Pea Pod, deuterium dilution Infants without sepsis or malformations born between 32 and 37 gestational weeks (ethnicity not reported) 14 (4F, 10 M) NR 3–7 days old %Fat Pea Pod: 4.2 (3.9), deuterium dilution 3.2 (3.8) (P > 0.05) 95% LoA: − 6.8-4.8% FFM density by Pea Pod did not correlate with those of deuterium dilution (r2 = 0.04, P > 0.05) Hydration factor: 83%
 Reproducibility studies
  Roggero et al. (2012) [50] Italy NA Preterm singleton infants with gestational age = < 36  weeks were included. Also term infants with gestational age > =37 were included. Infants aged > 1 mo of age, with congenital diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, respiratory distress syndrome, or severe brain, metabolic, cardiac, or gastrointestinal diseases were excluded. Precision: 57 (29F, 28 M) Inter-devise reproducibility: 9 full term and 3 preterm (6F, 6 M) Twice <  1 month %Fat SD: 1.1 95% LoA: − 2.05-2.36% Inter-device reproducibility: %fat test 1: 8.97%, test 2: 8.55% 95% LoA: − 1.87-2.71
  1. NA, not applicable; ADP, air displacement plethysmography; CA, chemical analysis; SD, standard deviation; LoA, limits of agreement; wks, weeks; US, united states; CV, coefficient of variation; 4-CM, 4 compartment model; DXA, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry