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Table 1 Background Characteristics and choice of skilled providers of ANC

From: Determinants of choice of skilled antenatal care service providers in Ghana: analysis of demographic and health survey

Background characteristic Years
1988 1993 1998 2003 2008 2014
n = 2701 n = 1974 n = 2374 n = 2743 n = 2131 n = 4294
National 45.0 60.6 68.7 90.8 84.9 87.7
Age
 15–19 38.9 62.8 74.5 91.9 81.0 94.0
 20–24 40.4 63.3 73.7 93.9 84.2 89.2
 25–29 41.3 61.9 72.9 92.4 90.2 91.3
 30–34 50.3 61.4 71.2 91.5 88.2 91.5
 35–39 48.7 57.7 69.4 92.2 87.8 91.2
 40–44 53.1 53.9 63.9 88.4 81.5 89.6
 45–49 49.1 37.5 51.9 89.9 82.8 77.3
Ecological Zone
 Coastal Zone 48.9 66.6 75.4 93.6 87.1 91.7
 Forest Zone 38.1 62.0 70.1 94.6 93.5 95.6
 Savannah zone 52.3 47.9 59.2 84.7 74.5 77.9
Place of Residence
 Urban 43.1 75.4 83.1 97.6 94.1 95.7
 Rural 45.7 54.7 66.4 88.8 81.9 86.0
Level of Education
 No education 48.8 50.8 63.2 86.2 77.7 81.4
 Primary 41.3 65.1 75.8 92.3 85.9 89.7
 Secondary 47.6 85.7 74.6 97.4 93.1 94.9
 Higher 58.8 93.3 84.8 100.0 99.3 98.8
Wealth Status
 Poorest 64.3 66.7 83.4 71.9 78.2
 Poorer 57.9 70.9 91.3 83.4 88.0
 Middle 58.0 70.1 94.9 92.1 93.0
 Richer 59.5 71.1 95.1 94.1 96.1
 Richest 62.8 72.8 98.7 97.5 98.7
Marital Status
 Single 53.8 57.6 71.7 91.1 87.7 92.0
 Married 43.3 60.9 70.6 91.8 86.7 90.8
 Cohabitation 51.2 60.7 71.1 94.6 86.4 88.7
Parity
 One birth 42.7 68.8 78.0 94.7 90.5 94.1
 Two births 42.0 62.7 72.5 94.0 88.5 92.6
 Three births 44.7 63.1 72.8 92.4 88.4 91.4
 Four or more births 47.1 54.9 65.5 89.5 83.2 87.0
Ethnicity
 Akan 41.5 63.0 73.9 94.7 93.1 94.3
 Ga/Dangme 54.0 80.5 79.9 93.9 92.3 93.5
 Ewe 43.7 62.1 73.5 92.6 81.7 92.8
 Northern Ethnic Group 48.5 51.5 60.1 86.5 79.2 83.1
 Other 52.1 62.5 61.2 90.6 82.1 91.9
Occupation
 Not working 44.1 63.2 66.0 90.5 89.4 91.4
 Working 45.8 59.9 71.5 92.2 86.5 90.4
  1. Source: Computed from GDHS 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008 and 2014