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Table 2 Logistic Regression on Choice of Antenatal Care Services Provided by Skilled Providers from 1988 to 2014

From: Determinants of choice of skilled antenatal care service providers in Ghana: analysis of demographic and health survey

Variable Odds ratio (OR) Confidence Interval (CI)
Age
 15–19 1.41 0.77–2.59
 20–24 Ref Ref
 25–29 1.24 0.89–1.73
 30–34 1.31 0.83–1.82
 35–39 1.31 0.86–2.02
 40–44 1.12 0.70–1.80
 45–49 0.83 0.48–1.45
Ecological Zone
 Coastal zone Ref Ref
 Forest zone 2.78*** 2.02–3.83
 Savannah zone 1.15 0.79–1.67
Ethnicity
 Akan Ref Ref
 Ga/Dangme 0.85 0.48–1.53
 Ewe 1.06 0.72–1.57
 Northern ethnic group 0.63* 0.44–0.92
 Other 1.38 0.52–3.66
Level of Education
 No education Ref Ref
 Primary 1.37* 1.04–1.80
 Secondary 1.42* 1.07–1.88
 Higher 3.41 0.52–3.66
Occupation
 Not working Ref Ref
 Working 1.15 0.87–1.50
Marital status
 Single Ref Ref
 Married 1.28 0.93–1.76
 Cohabitation 0.78 0.55–1.11
Wealth status
 Poorest Ref Ref
 Poorer 1.33* 1.01–1.76
 Middle 1.83** 1.27–2.65
 Richer 2.03** 1.26–3.26
 Richest 5.19*** 2.28–11.85
Place of Residence
 Urban Ref Ref
 Rural 0.55*** 0.41–0.74
Parity
 One birth Ref Ref
 Two births 0.79 0.54–1.16
 Three births 0.67* 0.44–1.00
 Four births or more 0.55** 0.36–0.85
Survey wave years
 1988 Ref Ref
 1993 5.98*** 5.21–6.87
 1998 6.13*** 5.39–6.99
 2003 10.54*** 9.12–12.19
 2008 7.79*** 6.73–9.01
 2014 30.4*** 25.39–36.43
  1. Source: computed from GDHS 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008 and 2014
  2. Ref reference, OR Odds Ratio
  3. *p < 0.10 **p < 0.05 ***p < 0.001