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Table 1 Total number of low birth weight infants and prevalence according to maternal characteristics and perinatal health behaviors in California for the period 2005–2014

From: Recent trends, risk factors, and disparities in low birth weight in California, 2005–2014: a retrospective study

Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Number of low birth weight infants 37,603 38,460 38,867 37,580 35,774 34,624 33,956 33,657 33,718 33,447
Percentage of low birth weight infants 6.9 6.8 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.8 6.7
Variable
Maternal age (years)
 < 20 7.7 7.4 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.5 7.3 7.1 7.4 7.2
 20–24 6.3 6.2 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.4 6.4
 25–29 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.1 5.9
 30–34 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.6 6.4
 35–39 7.9 7.9 8.0 8.0 7.8 7.8 7.9 7.7 7.7 7.6
 40–54 11.3 11.2 11.0 11.4 11.2 11.1 11.0 10.4 10.9 10.5
Maternal race and ethnicity
 Hispanic 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.3
 White 6.5 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.1 6.1 5.7 6.0 5.7
 Asian 7.6 7.7 7.6 7.8 8.1 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.7 7.2
 Pacific Islander 7.2 7.5 6.9 6.9 6.3 7.1 7.3 6.5 6.4 6.6
 African American 12.8 12.2 12.1 12.4 12.0 12.2 11.8 12.0 11.7 11.8
 Multiple race 7.8 7.6 7.8 7.0 7.6 7.7 7.1 7.5 7.3 7.6
 American Indian 6.6 6.7 7.5 7.6 6.4 6.8 6.2 6.6 7.0 6.3
 Other/unknown 9.1 9.6 10.2 10.0 9.3 10.0 10.1 9.8 10.2 10.0
Maternal education level
 Less than high school diploma 6.6 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.8 6.9
 High school diploma 7.0 6.8 6.7 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.5 6.7 6.6
 Some college or associate degree 6.9 6.9 7.0 6.9 6.7 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.9 6.7
 Bachelor’s degree or higher 6.8 6.9 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.2
 Unknown 8.2 8.7 8.6 9.0 8.6 8.6 8.9 8.7 9.1 8.8
Maternal nativity
 Foreign-born 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.6 6.5
 United States-born 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.1 7.1 7.0 6.8 6.9 6.8
Maternal demographic region
 Central Coast 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.2 6.0 5.8 6.1 5.9 6.2 6.0
 Greater Bay Area 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.0 6.7
 Inland Empire 6.9 6.7 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.9 7.1 6.8
 Los Angeles County 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.3 7.1 6.9 7.0 6.9
 Northern and Sierra 6.4 5.9 6.1 6.0 5.4 5.7 6.0 5.8 6.4 6.3
 Orange County 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.4 6.6 6.4 6.7 6.3 6.2 6.3
 Sacramento area 7.1 7.2 7.1 6.7 6.8 7.2 7.0 6.9 6.8 7.1
 San Diego area 6.7 6.5 6.9 6.6 6.6 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.4 6.4
 San Joaquin Valley 6.7 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.0 6.9 6.8 7.1 6.9
Source of prenatal care payment
 Private 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.8 6.6
 Medi-Cal 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.8 6.8
First trimester prenatal care initiation
 Yes 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.6
 No 7.6 7.2 6.8 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.8
Parity
 Primiparous 7.2 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.1 6.9
 Multiparous (2–5) 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.4
 Multiparous (6–12) 11.1 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.4 9.9 9.7 10.3 10.5
Plurality
 Singleton births 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.1
 Multiple births 56.9 57.1 56.8 56.0 55.4 54.6 54.7 53.8 53.6 52.7
Maternal smoking during both first and second trimesters
 No N/A N/A 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.7 6.6
 Yes N/A N/A 11.3 11.2 11.6 11.4 11.9 12.3 12.5 12.6
Prepregnancy body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight (≤18.5) N/A N/A 9.5 9.7 9.7 9.5 9.3 8.8 9.2 9.2
 Normal (18.5–24.9) N/A N/A 6.7 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.5
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) N/A N/A 6.3 6.1 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3
 Obese I (30.0–34.9) N/A N/A 6.6 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.5 6.2 6.5 6.7
 Obese II (35.0–39.9) N/A N/A 6.8 6.9 7.0 6.6 6.2 6.9 6.8 6.6
 Obese III (≥ 40) N/A N/A 6.9 7.0 6.5 7.3 6.6 6.9 7.2 6.7
  1. All values are given as percentages, except for the number of low birth weight infants
  2. N/A = Maternal smoking status and the variables needed to compute prepregnancy body mass index were not recorded during 2005 or 2006