Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Crude and adjusted odds ratio of low birth weight singleton births according to maternal characteristics and perinatal health behaviors in California for the period 2005–2014

From: Recent trends, risk factors, and disparities in low birth weight in California, 2005–2014: a retrospective study

Variable Crude odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio
OR (95% CI) p valuea AOR (95% CL) p valuea
Maternal age (years)
 <  20 1.28 (1.26–1.30) < .001 1.04 (1.01–1.06) 0.001
 25–29 0.90 (0.89–0.91) < .001 1.09 (1.07–1.11) < .001
 30–34 0.92 (0.91–0.94) < .001 1.25 (1.23–1.27) < .001
 35–39 1.08 (1.06–1.09) < .001 1.54 (1.51–1.56) < .001
 40–54 1.41 (1.38–1.44) < .001 2.01 (1.95–2.06) < .001
 20–24 (ref) Ref   Ref  
Maternal race and ethnicity
 African American 2.57 (2.53–2.62) < .001 2.41 (2.36–2.46) < .001
 American Indian 1.40 (1.30–1.50) < .001 1.31 (1.21–1.43) < .001
 Asian 1.53 (1.51–1.55) < .001 1.80 (1.76–1.83) < .001
 Hispanic 1.27 (1.26–1.29) < .001 1.30 (1.28–1.32) < .001
 Multiple race 1.45 (1.40–1.49) < .001 1.41 (1.36–1.45) < .001
 Other/unknown 1.63 (1.58–1.68) < .001 1.52 (1.45–1.59) < .001
 Pacific Islander 1.40 (1.31–1.50) < .001 1.50 (1.39–1.62) < .001
 White (ref) Ref   Ref  
Maternal education level
 Less than high school diploma 1.29 (1.28–1.31) < .001 1.36 (1.34–1.39) < .001
 High school diploma 1.25 (1.24–1.27) < .001 1.29 (1.27–1.31) < .001
 Some college or associate degree 1.23 (1.22–1.25) < .001 1.27 (1.25–1.29) < .001
 Unknown 1.46 (1.43–1.49) < .001 1.34 (1.29–1.39) < .001
 Bachelor’s degree or higher (ref) Ref   Ref  
Maternal nativity
 United States-born 1.06 (1.05–1.07) < .001 1.15 (1.13–1.16) < .001
 Foreign-born (ref) Ref   Ref  
Maternal demographic region
 Central Coast 0.98 (0.95–1.01) 0.246 1.06 (1.03–1.11) 0.001
 Greater Bay Area 1.09 (1.06–1.13) < .001 1.06 (1.02–1.09) 0.001
 Inland Empire 1.16 (1.13–1.19) < .001 1.16 (1.12–1.20) < .001
 Los Angeles County 1.21 (1.17–1.24) < .001 1.15 (1.11–1.18) < .001
 Orange County 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 0.274 1.06 (1.02–1.10) 0.001
 Sacramento area 1.07 (1.03–1.10) < .001 1.07 (1.03–1.11) < .001
 San Diego area 1.04 (1.01–1.08) 0.006 1.10 (1.06–1.14) < .001
 San Joaquin Valley 1.21 (1.18–1.25) < .001 1.20 (1.16–1.24) < .001
 Northern and Sierra Ref   Ref  
Source of prenatal care payment
 Medi-Cal (Public) 1.17 (1.16–1.19) < .001 1.13 (1.12–1.15) < .001
 Private insurance (ref) Ref   Ref  
First trimester prenatal care initiation
 No 1.11 (1.10–1.13) < .001 1.03 (1.02–1.04) < .001
 Yes (ref) Ref   Ref  
Parity
 Primiparous 1.40 (1.39–1.42) < .001 1.57 (1.55–1.58) < .001
 Multiparous (6–12) 1.67 (1.63–1.72) < .001 1.20 (1.17–1.25) < .001
 Multiparous (2–5) (ref) Ref   Ref  
Maternal smoking during both first and second trimesters
 Yes 2.11 (2.05–2.16) < .001 1.98 (1.92–2.04) < .001
 No (ref) Ref   Ref  
Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 1.58 (1.55–1.61) < .001 1.49 (1.46–1.52) < .001
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) 0.95 (0.94–0.96) < .001 0.95 (0.94–0.97) < .001
 Obese I (30.0–34.9) 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.919 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.118
 Obese II (35.0–39.9) 1.04 (1.02–1.06) < .001 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.315
 Obese III (≥ 40) 1.08 (1.06–1.11) < .001 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 0.237
 Normal (18.5–24.9) (ref) Ref   Ref  
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  2. Ref = Reference group
  3. a p value determined using the χ2 test