|Study (Year)||Design||Population and Sample Size||Outcome Measure||Results Summary|
|Hufnagle (1982) ||cohort||10 premature infants with NC||RUS during NICU admission||• All infants received furosemide of at least 2 mg/kg/day for at least 12 days prior to NC.|
|Woolfield (1988) ||cohort||36 infants with BW ≤ 1500 g||RUS at 12 months of age||
• 3/32 (9%) infants had NC on RUS and had received chronic furosemide with doses ranging from 2 to 8 mg/kg/day.|
• NC resolved in 2/3 (67%) cases; 1 died of unrelated causes.
|Jacinto (1988) ||cohort||31 infants with BW < 1500 g||RUS in third week of life and every 3 week thereafter until NICU discharge||
• NC was diagnosed in 20/31 (64%) of infants.|
• Exposure to furosemide was more common in NC group (65% vs 9%; p < 0.001).
|Ezzedeen (1988) ||cohort||17 premature infants with NC treated with furosemide; 3 premature infants treated with furosemide without NC (control group)||RUS during NICU admission||• No difference in average daily dose or duration of furosemide in NC group compared to control group.|
|Short (1991) ||cohort||79 infants with GA < 32 weeks||Serial RUS||
• 21/79 (27%) of infants diagnosed with NC.|
• No difference in mean total dose of furosemide.
|Downing (1991) ||cohort||117 infants with BW < 1750 g and BPD treated with furosemide||RUS prior to discharge and in 3–6 month intervals for positive findings of NC/NL||
• 20/117 (17%) had evidence of NC/NL on RUS prior to discharge.|
• Infants maintained on furosemide were more likely to have persistent NC/NL compared to those for whom furosemide was stopped (p < 0.001).
|Downing (1992) ||cohort||27 infants with BW < 1500 g enrolled into 3 groups: 1) not exposed to furosemide (n = 7); 2) received furosemide without NC (n = 10); and 3) received furosemide with NC (n = 10)||RUS and laboratory testing for glomerular and tubular kidney function||• Infants in group 3 had lower creatinine clearance (reduced glomerular function) and higher tubular dysfunction compared to infants in group 1 and 2.|
|Stafstrom (1992) ||cohort||11 premature infants with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus treated with furosemide and acetazolamide||Serial RUS||
• 5/11 (45%) infants with evidence of NC.|
• No correlation between duration of treatment, total dosage of medications, and development of renal calculi.
|Pope (1996) ||cohort||13 premature infants with NC and exposed to furosemide divided into 2 groups: resolution of NC (n = 6) and persistent NC (n = 7).||Serial RUS||• No difference in duration of or cumulative dose of furosemide in infants with resolution of NC compared to those with persistence of NC.|
|Saarela (1999) ||cohort||129 infants with BW < 1500 g||RUS at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months of life||
• 26/129 (20%) of infants diagnosed with NC.|
• The mean cumulative doses of furosemide were significantly higher in infants with NC compared to those without NC (19 mg vs 5 mg; p < 0.001).
|Schell-Feith (2000) ||cohort||215 infants with GA < 32 weeks||RUS at 4 weeks of life and at term||
• NC diagnosed in 50/150 (33%) of infants at 4 weeks of life and 83/201 (41%) at term (NS).|
• At term, furosemide exposure was higher in those with NC (32%) compared to those without NC (18%) (p < 0.001).
|Narendra (2001) ||cohort||101 infants with GA < 32 weeks or BW < 1500 g||RUS at 1 month of age and at term or NICU discharge||
• 16/101 (16%) diagnosed with NC.|
• The median total dose of furosemide was not significantly different before detection of NC on term RUS and in infants without NC (p = 0.75).
|Hoppe (2002) ||cohort||16 infants with GA < 37 weeks and diagnosed with NC||RUS during NICU admission and every 3–6 months following discharge||
• NC persisted in 4/12 (33%) infants who received follow-up.|
• Infants with resolution of NC received lower dosages of furosemide compared to those with persistent NC (p < 0.05).
|Hein (2004) ||cohort||114 infants with BW < 1500 g divided into 2 groups: 1) NC (n = 20); 2) without NC (n = 94). 20 infants from control group matched to NC group based on BW and GA.||RUS every 2 weeks during NICU admission||• No difference in duration of furosemide therapy between groups.|
|Ketkeaw (2004) ||cohort||36 infants with GA < 32 weeks and BW < 1250 g||RUS prior to NICU discharge||
• 14/36 (39%) were diagnosed with NC.|
• The mean cumulative dose and mean duration of furosemide was higher in infants with NC compared to those without NC (102 mg vs 32 mg; p = 0.001 and 39 vs 7 days; p = 0.001).
|Cranefield (2004) ||cohort||Cohort of infants enrolled in randomized trial of two regimens of dexamethasone for the prevention of BPD.||RUS on study entry, day of life 28, and at discharge or 36 weeks postmenstrual age||
• 15/18 (83%) of infants for whom complete data were available were diagnosed with NC prior to discharge or 36 weeks postmenstrual age.|
• Furosemide was used infrequently in the trial. 7/8 (88%) of the infants who never received furosemide developed NC.
|Gimpel (2010) ||cohort||55 infants with GA < 32 weeks and BW < 1500 g||RUS obtained after the first month of life||
• 15/55 (27%) of infants were diagnosed with NC.|
• The strongest independent risk factor for NC was furosemide therapy with cumulative dose > 10 mg/kg (OR 48.1 (95% CI 4.0–585); p < 0.01).
|Chang (2011) ||cohort||102 infants with GA < 34 weeks and BW < 1500 g||RUS at term or prior to NICU discharge||
• 6/102 (6%) of infants were diagnosed with NC.|
• Exposure to furosemide was more common in the NC group compared to the group without NC (33% vs 3%; p = 0.027).
|Lee (2014) ||cohort||52 infants with BW < 1500 g||RUS at 4 and 8 weeks of life||• Exposure to furosemide did not differ significantly between infants with NC and those without NC.|
|Mohamed (2014) ||cohort||97 infants with GA ≤ 34 weeks||RUS at first week of life, at term, and at one year corrected age||• Exposure to furosemide was more common in the NC group compared to the group without NC (50% vs 16%; p = 0.003).|