Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Psychometric Properties of Currently Available Tools for the Assessment of Infants who are Both Breast- and Bottle-Feeding

From: Neonatal Eating Assessment Tool - Mixed Breastfeeding and Bottle-Feeding (NeoEAT - Mixed Feeding): factor analysis and psychometric properties

Tool (Author) Purpose & intended user Target population Items – number & constructs Reliability Validity
Internal consistency Inter-rater Test-retest Content Construct
Early Feeding Skills (EFS) [27, 28] Assess oral feeding skills; Clinician-reported (Training available, but not required) Preterm and term infants birth to 52 weeks post-menstrual age. 19 items on revised version; Respiratory Regulation, Oral-Motor Function, Swallowing Coordination, Engagement, Physiologic Stability + + NR * +
Acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α = .81) [28]. Inter-rater reliability reported as acceptable between trained clinicians. * Item generation consistent with content validity, but not tested [27]. Construct validity with the Infant Drive Feeding Scale – Quality (r = −.18- - .73; p < .05) [28].
Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) [29] Describe disorganized and dysfunctional sucking patterns; Clinician-reported (Training Required) Preterm infants and those with complex medical conditions. 28 items; Jaw and tongue movement and function + + +/− NR +/−
Internal consistency reliability acceptable [30]. Inter-rater reliability acceptable after scoring system change (k = .78–.9) [31]. Test-retest inconsistent (k = .33–.94 and r = .23–.57) [32, 33]. Inconsistent evidence of construct validity with related constructs across studies [32, 34, 35].
  1. + = Acceptable reliability/ validity defined as Cronbach’s α > .7 [36], Cohen’s k > .6, ICC > .75, percent agreement > 80% [37], or correlation coefficient (r) > .4 [38]; − = Unacceptable reliability/validity by these definitions; +/− = Mixed findings; * = Description of item generation is consistent with content validity, but no formal testing conducted; NR = Not Reported