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Table 3 Maternal outcome (self-reported ‘parenting stress’) assessed by EBI-index* at the child’s age of 1 year, comparing intervention group vs historical control group (as reference group)

From: How effective is the early support program Babylotse-Plus for psychosocially burdened mothers and their infants? A comparative intervention study

Outcome Parameters EBI sum score and subscores N Inter-vention N Control Crude Odds Ratio
‘early support‘vs. control group (as reference)
95%-Confidence Interval Adjusted Odds Ratioa
‘early support‘vs control group (reference)
95%-Confidence Interval
EBI sum score (T-value ≥60) 21 35 0.82 0.44–1.52 0.74 0.29–1.92
EBI Subscale Parents total (T-value ≥60) 23 36 0.83 0.46–1.52 0.57 0.23–1.43
EBI Subscale Children total (T-value≥60) 22 28 1.09 0.58–2.04 0.91 0.35–2.35
Subscale Parents
 Depression (yes vs no) 78 127 0.37 0.18–0.74 0.25 0.07–0.94
 Lack of mother-child attachment (yes vs no) 59 74 1.22 0.74–2.03 1.18 0.52–2.68
 Social isolation (yes vs no) 79 102 1.27 0.71–2.26 1.32 0.55–3.20
 Parental incompetence (yes vs no) 53 95 0.51 0.31–0.86 0.47 0.20–1.08
 Health problems (yes vs no) 74 106 0.86 0.49–1.52 1.06 0.45–2.46
 Personal restrictions (yes vs no) 79 115 0.77 0.42–1.42 0.85 0.32–2.23
 Disturbed relationship with parenting partner (yes vs no) 72 114 0.61 0.32–1.14 0.34 0.10–1.14
Subscale Parental Stress due to Child’s...
 Demands (yes vs no) 69 117 0.42 0.23–0.76 0.40 0.15–1.10
 Hyperactivity (yes vs no) 84 114 1.07 0.57–2.02 0.69 0.25–1.90
 Mood (yes vs no) 49 75 0.81 0.49–1.34 0.61 0.27–1.38
 Acceptability (yes vs no) 54 74 1.01 0.61–1.67 0.91 0.39–2.12
 Adaptability (yes vs no) 77 108 0.92 0.52–1.65 0.54 0.21–1.40
  1. * EBI - German version of the self-reported Parenting Stress Index (PSI)
  2. a logistic regression model adjusted for: (i) sickness of mother that is a hindrance to childcare; (ii) premature birth; (iii) 2 or more small children under age 5 at home (iv) smoking during pregnancy; and (v) distress by economic problems