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Table 3 Alpha diversity metrics by deseasonalized maternal Vitamin D, overall and by race

From: Maternal and cord blood vitamin D level and the infant gut microbiota in a birth cohort study

Outcome Model βa SE p-value
1-Month
Prenatal Vitamin D
  Richness Overall (unadjusted) −4.872 1.201 <.001
Overall (adjusted for race)b −3.293 1.488 0.028
Black −4.409 1.912 0.022
White −1.548 2.371 0.515
Interaction p-value    0.35
  Evenness Overall (unadjusted) −0.004 0.002 0.046
Overall (adjusted for race)b − 0.002 0.003 0.498
Black −0.004 0.003 0.26
White 0.001 0.004 0.76
Interaction p-value    0.347
  Diversity Overall (unadjusted) −0.293 0.063 <.001
Overall (adjusted for race)b −0.199 0.079 0.012
Black −0.281 0.101 0.006
White −0.071 0.125 0.567
Interaction p-value    0.195
Cord Vitamin D
  Richness Overall (unadjusted) −6.363 2.306 0.006
Overall (adjusted for race)b −2.001 2.660 0.453
Black −5.955 3.455 0.087
White 3.516 4.126 0.397
Interaction p-value    0.079
  Evenness Overall (unadjusted) −0.005 0.004 0.219
Overall (adjusted for race)b 0.002 0.005 0.712
Black −0.009 0.007 0.194
White 0.017 0.008 0.044
Interaction p-value    0.016
  Diversity Overall (unadjusted) −0.385 0.122 0.002
Overall (adjusted for race)b −0.174 0.142 0.223
Black −0.370 0.191 0.055
White 0.100 0.206 0.629
Interaction p-value    0.103
6-Months
Prenatal Vitamin D
  Richness Overall (unadjusted) −4.447 1.513 0.004
Overall (adjusted for race)b −2.324 1.852 0.211
Black −2.364 2.590 0.363
White −2.276 2.626 0.388
Interaction p-value    0.981
  Evenness Overall (unadjusted) −0.004 0.002 0.097
Overall (adjusted for race)b −0.001 0.003 0.643
Black 0.000 0.004 0.973
White −0.003 0.005 0.553
Interaction p-value    0.648
  Diversity Overall (unadjusted) −0.229 0.075 0.003
Overall (adjusted for race)b −0.116 0.091 0.206
Black −0.167 0.128 0.195
White −0.055 0.128 0.667
Interaction p-value    0.544
Cord Vitamin D
  Richness Overall (unadjusted) −8.437 2.860 0.004
Overall (adjusted for race)b −6.181 3.300 0.063
Black −10.201 4.241 0.018
White 0.673 5.153 0.897
Interaction p-value    0.112
  Evenness Overall (unadjusted) −0.007 0.005 0.166
Overall (adjusted for race)b −0.008 0.006 0.177
Black −0.017 0.007 0.025
White 0.007 0.010 0.475
Interaction p-value    0.053
  Diversity Overall (unadjusted) −0.409 0.140 0.004
Overall (adjusted for race)b −0.300 0.159 0.061
Black −0.479 0.205 0.021
White 0.006 0.248 0.979
Interaction p-value    0.141
  1. SE standard error
  2. aEstimated change in alpha diversity measure for a 5 ng/mL increase in vitamin D
  3. bRestricted to Black or White only, so reduced sample size compared to unadjusted