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Table 2 Characteristics of included articles for systematic review for perinatal mortality rate in Sub-Saharan countries, 2000–2019 Gregorian Calendar (GC)

From: Perinatal mortality and its determinants in Sub Saharan African countries: systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, Year R S D SS Determinants Association with
PMR AOR(95% CI)
PMR
Getiye et al., 2017, [28] Ethiopia EA FB CC 1113 Short birth interval 4.55 (1.79–11.54) NR
     Preterm Delivery 2.02 (1.08–3.77)  
     Hx of perinatal loss 6.36 (1.51–26.76)  
     Low Birth weight 16.45 (9.57–28.26)  
Aragaw YA, 2016, [29] Ethiopia EA FB CS 3786 No ANC visit 2.05 (1.48–2.87) 98.2
     Shoulder delivery 5.95 (2.11–16.86)  
     Breech delivery 4.06 (1.856–8.912)  
     Low birth weight 5.03 (1.63–15.00)  
Yirgu R et al., 2016, [30] Ethiopia EA CB CC 4097 Primipara 3.15 (1.03–9.60) 25.1
     Hx of perinatal loss 2.46 (1.03,5.86)  
     Hx of perinatal loss 9.55 (4.67–19.54)  
     Preterm birth 9.44 (1.81–49.22)  
Goba et al. 2018, [31] Ethiopia EA FB CC 378 Preterm birth 12.2 (3.46, 43.17) NR
Z     Low birth weight 11.5 (3.16–42.36)  
     No ANC visit 5.4 (0.80–36.63)  
     Short birth interval 2.2 (1.03–5.09)  
Andargie et al. 2013, [32] Ethiopia EA CB Co 1752 Hx of perinatal loss 8.38 (3.94, 17.83) 50.22
     Multiple gestation 7.09 (3.22, 15.61)  
     Short birth interval 2.58 (1.61, 4.13)  
Nkwo et al., 2014, [33] Nigeria WA PB CS 25,817 Hx of perinatal loss 3.31 (2.73, 4.02 36
     Multiple gestation 3.12 (2.11, 4.59)  
     Short birth interval 1.65 (1.26, 2.17)  
     Low birth weight 2.57 (1.79, 3.69)  
Fawole et al., 2011, [34] Nigeria WA FB CS 9177 No ANC visit 1.74 (1.27, 2.39) 78
     Preterm birth 1.89 (1.12, 3.19)  
     Elective CS 0.12 (0.05, 0.36)  
     Emergency CS 0.73 (0.55, 0.96)  
Owolabi et al. 2008, WA FB Co 894 Primipara 0.67 (0.26, 1.73) NR
[35] Nigeria        
Ekure et al. 2011, [36] Nigeria WA FB CS 560 Primipara c  0.07 B (0.02, 0.06) 84.6
     Low birth weight c − 0.09 B(− 0.05, 0.02)  
Schmiegelow et al. 2012, [37] Tanzania EA CB Co 872 Preterm birth 14.47 (3.23, 64.86) NR
Habib et al. 2008, [38] Tanzania EA FB CS 15,255 Preterm birth a 2.2 (1.7, 2.8) 43.9
Feresu et al. 2005, [39] Zimbabwe SA FB CS 15,117 No ANC visit b 2.52 (1.63, 3.91) 65
     Primipara b 1.52 (0.97, 2.38)  
     Breech Delivery b 10.53 (6.78, 6.34)  
     Instrument delivery b 3.38 (1.64, 6.96)  
Tachiweyika et al. 2011, [5] Zimbabwe SA CB CC 10,540 Low birth weight 9.46 (3.91, 27.65) NR
Moyer et al. 2016, [40] Uganda WA CB CS 4883 105.88
Engmann et al. 2012, [41] Ghana WA PB CS 17,300 Primipara 1.75 (1.28, 2.40) 39
     Preterm birth 2.84 (2.11, 3.81)  
     Multiple gestation 5.22 (3.61, 7.54)  
Kone et al., 2018, [42] Côte d’Ivoire WA CB Co 2976 Hx of perinatal loss 23.2 (14.71, 36.55) 33
     Preterm birth 4.45 (2.82, 7.01)  
     Caesarean section 13.03 (4.24, 40.08)  
     Instrument delivery 5.05 (1.50, 16.96)  
Diallo et al. 2010, [43] Burkina Faso WA CB Co 895 Primipara 2.20 (1.2, 3.9) 79
     Multiple gestation b 4.0 (2.3, 6.9)  
Yego et al. 2014, [44] Kenya EA FB CC 600 No ANC visit 4.5 (1.2, 16.7) NR
     Preterm birth 7.0 (2.4, 20.4)  
     Low birth weight 6.6 (3.8, 10.2)  
Musafili et al. 2015, [45] Rwanda EA FB CC 672 32
kulmala et al. 2000, [46] Malawi EA CB Co 780 Cesarean section b 4.4 (1.4, 13.9) NR
     Hx of perinatal loss b 2.7 (1.3, 5.7)  
N.B Osman et al. 2001, [47] SA FB Co 908 Preterm birth 8.48 (3.44, 20.90) 47
Mozambique      Low Birth weight AOR 4.20 (1.49–11.86)  
  1. Association with PMR reported as adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) except as noted a relative risk, bAdjusted Relative risk, and cStandard coeffiecent,
  2. Region (R) is coded: EA East Africa, SA South Africa, WA West Africa., Study type is coded, CB Community Based, FB Facility Based, PB Population Based, Study design is coded, CC Case control, Co Cohort, CS Cross Sectional, Sample size (SS) is coded, Perinatl mortality rate (PMR) is coded, NR Not Reported