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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics of Participants (N = 138)

From: Effects of timing of umbilical cord clamping on preventing early infancy anemia in low-risk Japanese term infants with planned breastfeeding: a randomized controlled trial

  DCC (n = 68) ECC (n = 70)
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age 30.5 (5.0) 31.1 (5.0)
 Parity
  primipara 24 (35.3) 21 (30.0)
  multipara 44 (64.7) 49 (70.0)
 Anemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl) 32 (47.1) 37 (52.9)
 Blood type O (all Rh +) 17 (25.0) 16 (22.9)
 History of photo therapy (only for multipara; n = 93,DCC = 44,ECC = 49) 7 (10.3) 7 (10.0)
Neonatal characteristics
 Gender
  male 34 (50.0) 36 (51.4)
  female 34 (50.0) 34 (48.6)
 Gestational age
  37w 8 (11.8) 0 (0.0)
  38w 5 (7.4) 13 (18.6)
  39w 34 (50.0) 26 (37.1)
  40w 17 (25.0) 23 (32.9)
  41w 4 (5.9) 8 (11.4)
 Low birth weight (2500 g) 3 (4.4) 6 (8.6)
 Maximum weight loss (%) (n = 134,DCC = 67,ECC = 67) 7.5 (1.8) 7.1 (1.7)
 Meconium was not excreted at day 4 (n = 109, DCC = 54 ECC = 55) 25 (46.3) 28 (50.9)
 Increased weight 0-4mths (g) 3603 (595.0) 3701 (685.1)
Delivery
 Type of delivery
  Duration of delivery 507 (372.1) 509 (381.7)
  Instrumental delivery 3 (4.4) 0 (0)
   Use of oxytocine (induction of labor) 4 (5.9) 7 (10.0)
   Use of oxytocine immidiately after birth 57 (83.8) 54 (77.1)
  Duration of third stage of labor (mins) 9.2 (5.9) 8.2 (5.2)
  Placenta (g) 569 (80.4) 563 (85.7)
  Apgar score (1 min) less than7 1 (1.5) 3 (4.3)
  Apgar score (5 min) less than7 0 (0) 0 (0)
  Cephelohematoma 0 (0) 2 (2.9)
Nutrition
 Type of nutrition (during confinement)
  exclusive breast feeding 40 (59.7) 48 (70.6)
  mixed 27 (40.3) 20 (29.4)
  formula milk 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Type of nutrition (1 month)
  exclusive breast feeding 50 (74.6) 53 (75.7)
  mixed 17 (25.4) 17 (24.3)
  formula milk 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Type of nutrition (4 month) (n = 137; DCC = 67, ECC = 70)
  exclusive breast feeding 54 (80.6) 61 (87.1)
  mixed 11 (16.4) 7 (10.0)
  formula milk 2 (3.0) 2 (2.9)
  Weaning food (4 month) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD) or n (%)