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Table 1 Individual and community-level factors of adverse perinatal outcomes in urban South Ethiopia

From: Effects of inter-pregnancy intervals on preterm birth, low birth weight and perinatal deaths in urban South Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study

Variables Preterm birth (n = 235) Term low birth weight (n = 96) Perinatal deaths (n = 47)
Total (N = 2510) n (%) X2
P-value
Total (N = 2275) n (%) X2
P-value
Total (N = 2548) n (%) X2
P-value
Individual-level factors
Inter-pregnancy interval in months
   < 18 732 84 (11.5) 0.01 652 37 (5.7)  < 0.009 754 26 (3.4)  < 0.001
  18–23 500 53 (10.6) 447 24 (5.4) 504 7 (1.4)
  24–60 1278 98 (7.7) 1176 35 (3.1) 1290 14 (1.1)
Age at interview in years
  20–24 390 28 (7.2) 0.15 362 16 (4.4) 0.64 398 9 (2.3) 0.15
  25–29 1364 127 (9.3) 1235 48 (3.9) 1386 30 (2.2)
   ≥ 30 748 80 (10.7) 670 32 (4.8) 756 8 (1.1)
Maternal education
  No formal education 495 71 (14.3)  < 0.001 424 24 (5.7) 0.10 501 8 (1.6) 0.89
  Primary education 1055 102 (9.7) 953 45 (4.7) 1069 19 (1.8)
  Secondary education 530 41 (7.7) 489 16 (3.3) 541 12 (2.2)
  Higher education 430 21 (4.9) 409 11 (2.7) 437 8 (1.8)
Husband education
  No formal education 364 56 (15.4)  < 0.001 307 25 (8.1) 0.001 370 6 (1.6) 0.47
  Primary education 990 95 (9.6) 896 39 (4.4) 1000 14 (1.4)
  Secondary education 553 42 (7.6) 511 13 (2.5) 563 13 (2.3)
  Higher education 602 42 (7.0) 560 19 (3.4) 614 14 (2.3)
Maternal occupation
  Housewife 1833 195 (10.6) 0.001 1637 82 (5.0) 0.011 1862 35 (1.9) 0.54
  Merchant/vender/others 278 16 (5.8) 263 5 (1.9) 279 3 (1.1)
  Employed 399 24 (6.0) 375 9 (2.4) 407 9 (2.2)
Age at first childbirth
  15–19 663 48 (7.2) 0.03 615 31 (5.0) 0.27 673 11 (1.6) 0.48
  20–24 1511 146 (9.7) 1363 57 (4.2) 1533 27 (1.8)
   ≥ 25 331 41 (12.4) 292 8 (2.7) 337 9 (2.7)
Parity
  1–2 1701 139 (8.2) 0.003 1561 58 (3.7) 0.07 1729 35 (2.0) 0.34
   ≥ 3 804 96 (11.9) 709 38 (5.4) 814 12 (1.5)
Mode of previous delivery
  Spontaneous vaginal delivery 2283 209 (9.2) 0.25 2074 85 (4.1) 0.34 2319 44 (1.9) 0.53
  Cesarean-section or Instrumental 226 26 (11.5) 200 11 (5.5) 228 3 (1.3)
Pregnancy intention
  Intended 1533 143 (9.3) 0.94 1383 56 (4.0) 0.59 1554 27 (1.7) 0.62
  Unintended 977 92 (9.4) 888 40 (4.5) 994 20 (2.0)
Wealth status
  Low 828 60 (7.2) 0.001 768 24 (3.1) 0.001 838 13 (1.6) 0.004
  Medium 836 103 (12.3) 733 48 (6.5) 843 8 (0.9)
  High 827 68 (8.2) 759 23 (3.0) 848 26 (3.1)
Community-level factors
Community maternal education
  Low 1157 178 (15.4)  < 0.001 979 64 (6.5)  < 0.001 1038
  High 1353 57 (4.2) 1296 32 (2.5) 1379
Community wealth status
  Low 1245 153 (12.3)  < 0.001 1092 51 (4.7) 0.30 1258
  High 1265 82 (6.5) 1183 45 (3.8) 1290