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Table 3 Relationship of maternal health problems to vitamin status. A “M” is added to studies which are meta-analyses or systematic reviews

From: Evidence based recommendations for an optimal prenatal supplement for women in the US: vitamins and related nutrients

Maternal Outcome Substantial Evidence Limited Evidence
Abdominal Pain   Vitamin C (Rumbold 2008) [20]
Anemia Riboflavin(Ma 2008, Suprapto 2002) [21, 22];
Vitamin A (Thorne-Lyman 2012 M) [23]
 
Cesarean Section Vitamin D (Merewood 2009, Wagner 2016) [24, 25]  
Dental Decay   Pyridoxine (Rumbold 2008) [20]
Depression DHA (Hibbeln 2002, Lin 2017 M, Zhang 2020 M) [26,27,28]  
Eclampsia   Vitamin A (Ziari 1996) [29];
Vitamin E (Ziari 1996) [29]
Gestational Diabetes Cobalamin (Yajnik 2008, Finkelstein 2015) [30, 31]
DHA (Goa 2020) [32]
Inositol (Corrado 2011) [33]
Glucose Levels Inositol (Corrado 2011, Papaloe 2011) [3334]  
Hospitalization   Vitamin C (Hans 2010) [35]
Hyperglycemia   Vitamin E (Ley 2013) [36]
Hypertension Vitamin D (Rumbold 2008, Wagner 2013) [20, 37] Riboflavin (Elsen 2012) [38]
Infection   Vitamin D (Wagner 2013) [37]
Infertility Cobalamin (Jackson 1967, Hall 1968, Bennett 2001) [39,40,41] Inositol (Carlomagno 2011, Papaloe 2011) [34, 42]
Insulin Resistance   Vitamin E (Ley 2013) [36]
Megaloblastic Anemia   Folate (Lassi 2013 M) [43]
Nausea/Vomiting during Pregnancy   Pyridoxine (Chittumma 2007) [44]
Night Blindness Riboflavin (Christian 1998, Graham 2007) [45, 46] Vitamin A (Christian 1998) [46]
Pernicious Anemia   Cobalamin (Jackson 1967, Hall 1968) [39, 40]
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome   Inositol (Papaleo 2011) [34]
Preeclampsia Cobalamin (Mardali 2021) [47];
Vitamin D (Bodnar 2007, Baca 2016, Haugen 2009, & Wagner 2013) [37, 48,49,50];
DHA (Bakouei 2020 M, Kulkarni 2010, Middleton 2018) [51,52,53]
Pyridoxine (Hillman 1962) [54];
Riboflavin (Elsen 2012) [38];
Vitamin A (Ziari 1996) [29];
Vitamin C (Chappell 2002) [55]
Vitamin E (Ziari 1996) [29]
Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM) Vitamin C (Rumbold 2015 M, Casanueva 2005, Ghomian 2013, Zamani 2013 & Kiondo 2014) [56,57,58,59,60,61];
Vitamin E (Rumbold 2015b M) [56, 60]
 
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism   Vitamin D (Yu 2009) [62]
Urinary Tract Infection   Vitamin C (Ochoa-Brust 2007) [63]