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Table 4 Relationship of infant health problem to maternal vitamin status

From: Evidence based recommendations for an optimal prenatal supplement for women in the US: vitamins and related nutrients

Infant Outcome Significant Evidence Limited Evidence
Alzheimer’s   Choline (Strupp 2016) [64]
Asthma/Wheeze Vitamin D (Beckhaus 2015, Zosky 2014, Wolsk 2017) [65,66,67];
Vitamin E (Beckhaus 2015 M) [65]
Vitamin C (McEvoy 2014) [68];
DHA
Autism Folate (Li 2019) [69];
Vitamin D (Vinkhuyzen 2018, Fernell 2015) [70, 71]
Vitamin B12 (Raghavan 2018, Hollowood 2020) [72, 73]
Birth Weight Pantothenic Acid (Baker 1977, Haggarty 2009, Lagiou 2005, Watson 2010) [74,75,76,77];
Pyridoxine (Chang 1999, Ronnenberg 2002) [78, 79];
Cobalamin (Finkelstein 2015, Rogne 2017 M) [3180]
Vitamin C (Haggarty 2009) [74];
Thiamine (Bakker 2000) [81];
Niacin (Baker 1977) [75];
DHA (Carlson 2013) [82],
Cardiovascular malformation   Pyridoxine (Czeizel 2004) [83]
Congenital Heart Defects Cobalamin (Finkelstein 2015 R, Shaw 2010) [31, 84];
Vitamin E (Smedts 2009, Shaw 2010) [84, 85]
Vitamin A (Shaw 2010) [84];
Niacin (Shaw 2010) [84];
Riboflavin (Shaw 2010) [84]
Down Syndrome   Choline (Strupp 2016) [64]
Gestational Length   DHA (Carlson 2013, Ciesielski 2019, Harris 2015, Middleton 2018 M, Miller 2006, Olsen 2000, Smuts 2003) [51, 82, 86,87,88,8990]
Hyperbilirubinemia   DHA (Goa 2020) [32]
Insulin resistance   Cobalamin (Finkelstein 2015) [31]
Intellectual Development DHA Cobalamin (Finkelstein 2015) [31]
Intrauterine Growth Restriction Cobalamin (Finkelstein 2015 R) [31] Thiamine (Heinze 1990) [91]
Language Difficulties   Vitamin D (Whitehouse 2012) [92];
Folate (Roth 2011) [93]
Leanness   DHA
Lung Function   Vitamin A (Checkley 2010) [94];
Vitamin C (McEvoy 2014) [68]
Memory   Choline (Boeke 2013) [95],
Cobalamin (Finkelstein 2015) [31]
Miscarriage Cobalamin (Reznikoff-Etiévant 2002 M, Hubner 2008) [96, 97] Vitamin D (Andersen 2015) [98]
Neonatal Care Admissions   DHA (Middleton 2018) [51]
Neural Tube Defects Cobalamin (Finkelstein 2015 R, Mills 1995, Molloy 2009, Ray 2007, Wald 1996) [31, 99,100,101,102];
Folate (Berry 1999; Czeizel 1992; Goh 2006 M, Kirke 1992; Laurence 1981; MRC 1991; Toriello 2005; Vergel 1990; Werler 1993, Wilson 2015) [103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112];
Inositol (Greene 2016, Greene 2017, Guan 2014, Cavalli 2011) [113,114,115,116]
Choline (Shaw 2010);
Niacin (Groenen 2004);
Thiamine (Chandler 2012) [84117, 118]
Neurodevelopmental Behavior Problem   Pyridoxine (McCullough 1990) [119]
Orofacial Defects Folate (Goh 2006 M) [111] Vitamin A (Krapels 2004) [120];
Vitamin C (Krapels 2004) [120];
Vitamin E (MISSING, Krapels 2004) [120];
Biotin (Takechi 2008) [121];
Pyridoxine (Krapels 2004) [120]
Learning Disabilities   Thiamine (Bell 1979) [122]
Perinatal Death   DHA (Middleton 2018) [51]
Placental Abruption Vitamin E (Rumbold 2015a R) [56, 60]  
Preterm Birth DHA (Carlson 2013, Ciesielski 2019, Harris 2015, Middleton 2018 M, Miller 2006, Olsen 2000) [51, 82, 86,87,88, 90];
Vitamin D (Wagner 2013, Wagner 2016) [24, 37];
Vitamin E (Bártfai 2012) [123];
Cobalamin (Rogne 2017 M) [80]
Pyridoxine (Ronnenberg 2002) [78];
Folate (Li 2019) [69]
Psychomotor Scores/Skills   DHA
Vitamin D (Morales 2012) [124]
Risk for Serious Birth Defects Folate (Goh 2006 M) [111] Riboflavin (Robitaille 2009) [125]
Small for Gestational Age Cobalamin (Finkelstein 2015 R) [31];
Folate (Hodgetts 2015 M) [126]
 
Vitamin K Deficient Bleeding (Often intercranial hemorrhage) Vitamin K (AAP 2015, Crowther 2001) [127]