Skip to main content

Table 2 Clinical characteristics of mothers and neonatal outcomes (N = 441)

From: Maternal predictors of neonatal outcomes after emergency cesarean section: a retrospective study in three rural district hospitals in Rwanda

Clinical characteristics Number Percent
Number of fetuses
 1 402 91.2
 2 39 8.8
Gestational age N = 366
  < 38 weeks 59 16.1
 38–42 weeks 284 77.6
  > 42 weeks 23 6.3
Duration of contractions prior to admission N = 279
  ≤ 12 h 83 29.7
 13–24 h 113 40.5
  > 24 h 83 29.8
Fetal heart rate at admission (bpm) N = 429
  < 120 59 13.8
 120–160 352 82.1
  > 160 18 4.2
Maternal blood pressure at admission (SBP/DBP) N = 397
 Hypotensive (<90/<50) 2 0.5
 Normal (90–140/50–90) 368 92.7
 Hypertensive (>140/>90) 27 6.8
Oxygen saturation on admission N = 216
 Low saturation (≤94%) 7 3.2
 Normal saturation (>94%) 209 96.8
Hemoglobin level (grams/deciliter) N = 285
 Low (<12) 48 16.8
 Normal (12–16) 231 81.1
 Above range (>16) 6 2.1
History of prior cesarean section N = 349
 No 220 63.0
 Yes 129 37.0
Indications for cesarean section
 Fetal distress 141 32.0
 Prolonged labor 135 30.6
 Prior cesarean section 129 29.3
 Malpresentation 108 24.5
 Cephalopelvic disproportion 69 15.6
 Prolonged rupture of membranes 46 7.9
 Placenta previa 21 4.8
 Intra-uterine rupture 7 1.6
 Cord prolapse 6 1.4
 Preeclampsia 6 1.4
 Abruption placenta 5 1.1
Number of indications per woman
 Single indications 238 54.0
 2 indications 179 40.6
 3+ indications 24 5.4
Severity of cesarean indication
 Very severe indicationa 180 40.8
 Severe indicationb 261 59.2
Neonatal clinical outcome
 Alive and APGAR ≥ 7 401 91.0
 Died, or APGAR < 7 40 9.0
  1. SBP Systolic blood pressure
  2. DBP Diastolic blood pressure
  3. aVery severe indication was defined as intrauterine rupture, fetal distress, cord prolapse, and abruptio placentae
  4. bSevere indication was defined as preeclampsia, prolonged rupture of membranes, cephalo-pelvic disproportion, prolonged labor and mal-presentation