|Study (Year)||Design||Population and Sample Size||Outcome Measure||Results|
|Mjoen (1982) ||cohort||60 high-risk infants 27–44 weeks GA||ABR testing in NICU and follow-up visits||
• 4 infants with evidence of SNHL.|
• 3/4 infants exposed to ototoxic medications (furosemide and/or aminoglycoside).
|McCann (1985) ||randomized controlled||17 premature infants with BPD (7 infants received furosemide and 10 infants received placebo)||Audiology screen at discharge and follow-up visits||• Normal hearing in all infants.|
|Salamy (1989) ||cohort||GA 24–34 weeks||ABR in NICU and follow-up; behavioral audiometry from 3 months to 4 years||• Infants with SNHL received greater amounts of furosemide for longer durations, in combination with aminoglycoside or vancomycin therapy (p < 0.001 for all factors).|
|Brown (1991) ||case-control||35 infants with SNHL and 70 matched hearing-intact controls||BAER testing prior to discharge from NICU||• 17/35 (49%) infants with SNHL and 6/70 (9%) controls were exposed to furosemide (p < 0.0001).|
|Borradori (1997) ||case-control||8 children with progressive bilateral deafness born preterm (GA ≤ 34 weeks) with 16 controls matched on GA and BW and 15 controls matched on perinatal complications||ABR at NICU discharge and follow-up||
• 8/8 (100%) infants with SNHL and 13/15 (87%) controls received furosemide (NS).|
• Mean duration (p < 0.001), total cumulative dose (p < 0.001), and maximum daily dose (p = 0.05) were higher in SNHL group.
|Ertl (2001) ||case-control||22 premature infants with SNHL and 25 controls matched on GA, BW, and perinatal factors associated with hearing loss||OAE test and ABR if failed OAE||• 4/22 (18%) infants with SNHL and 1/25 (4%) controls received furosemide (p < 0.01).|
|Rais-Bahrami (2004) ||cohort||57 infants who received furosemide and 207 infants who did not receive furosemide||OAE, ABR, or both prior to NICU discharge||• No difference in abnormal hearing screen in furosemide and non-furosemide groups (16% vs. 16%; p = 0.95).|
|Xoinis (2007) ||case-control||71 infants with SNHL, 24 with auditory neuropathy,and 95 controls matched on GA, BW, and birth year||ABR and OAE||• Higher exposure to furosemide in SNHL group (51%) and AN group (96%) compared to control group (32.6%) (p < 0.05) for both comparisons.|
|Coenraad (2011) ||case-control||9 infants with hearing loss and 36 controls matched on GA, gender, and birth year||ABR screening prior to NICU discharge and repeat ABR and OAE at follow-up visit for failed screening.||• No differences in furosemide exposure between groups (44% vs. 25%; p = 0.56).|
|Martinez-Cruz (2012) ||case-control||6 children with SNHL and 87 normal-hearing controls with birth weights < 750 g||BAER screening and OAE at follow-up visits for failed initial screening||
• 6/6 (100%) infants with SNHL and 45/87 (52%) control infants received furosemide (p = 0.002).|
• Longer average duration of furosemide in SNHL infants who received furosemide compared with controls (18 days vs. 7 days).
|Rastogi (2013) ||cohort||Infants with BW < 1500 g.||ABR prior to NICU discharge; Follow-up at 2 years for failed screening to determine hearing status||• No association with furosemide and hearing loss when adjusting for BW, GA, and other perinatal risk factors (OR 1.18; p = 0.3).|
|Wang (2017) ||cohort||Included all infants with BW ≤ 1500 g. 297 infants with normal hearing and 12 infants with hearing loss||OAE before discharge and BAER at 3 months corrected age if failed initial screen||• Exposure to ototoxins (furosemide and/or gentamicin) was associated with hearing loss (OR 3.62; 95% CI 1.67–7.82).|