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Table 3 Quality assessment of observational studies examining risk of hearing loss in premature infants

From: Association between furosemide in premature infants and sensorineural hearing loss and nephrocalcinosis: a systematic review

Study (Year) Risk of Bias (Low, Moderate, Serious, Critical, No Information) Comments
Mjoen (1982) [19] Critical Critical risk of bias in classification of interventions domain: ototoxic medications grouped as one variable (i.e., furosemide not identified as a single risk factor).
Salamy (1989) [20] Moderate Confounding well-accounted for by assessing “neonatal status” based on duration of hospitalization, days of assisted ventilation, radiography and lab results, etc.
Brown (1991) [21] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: Selection of variables included in the multivariate analyses based solely on results of univariate analyses and did not adequately account for severity of illness in each group.
Borradori (1997) [22] Moderate Confounding well-accounted for by the creation of two control groups based on BW/GA and perinatal complications related to risk of ototoxicity.
Ertl (2001) [23] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: infants not matched on severity of illness or co-morbidities associated with hearing loss.
Rais-Bahrami (2004) [24] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: no adjustment for perinatal factors related to hearing loss.
Xoinis (2007) [25] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: infants not matched on severity of illness or co-morbidities associated with hearing loss.
Coenraad (2011) [26] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: infants not matched on severity of illness or co-morbidities associated with hearing loss.
Martinez-Cruz (2012) [27] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: infants not matched on severity of illness or co-morbidities associated with hearing loss.
Rastogi (2013) [28] Moderate Confounding well-accounted for in multivariate analyses, which adjusted for GA, BW, and other known perinatal risk factors for hearing loss.
Wang (2017) [29] Critical Critical risk of bias in classification of interventions domain: ototoxic medications grouped as one variable (i.e., furosemide not identified as a single risk factor).
  1. Legend: BW Birth weight, GA Gestational age