Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 6 Quality assessment of observational studies examining risk of nephrocalcinosis/nephrolithiasis (NC/NL) in premature infants

From: Association between furosemide in premature infants and sensorineural hearing loss and nephrocalcinosis: a systematic review

Study (Year) Risk of Bias (Low, Moderate, Serious, Critical, No Information) Comments
Hufnagle (1982) [30] Critical Critical risk of bias in confounding domain: no statistical tests performed in the analysis to test association of NC and furosemide. Critical risk of bias in selection of participants into the study: All infants were exposed to furosemide and had NC; lack of control group.
Woolfield (1988) [31] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: no statistical tests performed in the analysis to test association of NC and furosemide.
Jacinto (1988) [32] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: Lower BW and GA associated with outcome (NC), along with exposure to furosemide. Did not control for severity of illness.
Ezzedeen (1988) [33] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: no adjustment for severity of illness; small number of infants in control group.
Short (1991) [34] Moderate Multivariate analyses controlling for other risk factors for NC. Dose-response relationship evaluated.
Downing (1991) [35] Moderate All infants screened for the outcome had a diagnosis of chronic lung disease; high percentage of follow-up imaging obtained.
Downing (1992) [36] Moderate Robust comparators; long-term follow-up.
Stafstrom (1992) [37] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: no statistical tests performed in the analysis to test association of NC and furosemide. No reporting of frequency of NC in infants with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus not exposed to furosemide.
Pope (1996) [38] Moderate Similar severity of illness in each group; long-term follow up with serial ultrasounds. Dose-response relationship evaluated.
Saarela (1999) [39] Moderate Dose-response relationship evaluated.
Schell-Feith (2000) [40] Moderate Large sample size. Control group without NC included.
Narendra (2001) [41] Moderate Multivariate analyses controlling for other risk factors for NC. Dose-response relationship evaluated.
Hoppe (2002) [42] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: Lack of control group without NC.
Hein (2004) [43] Moderate Large sample size with appropriate control groups.
Ketkeaw (2004) [44] Moderate Appropriate control group included. Dose-response relationship evaluated.
Cranefield (2004) [45] Moderate All infants with comparable severity of illness.
Gimpel (2010) [46] Moderate Multivariate analyses controlling for other risk factors for NC. Dose-response relationship evaluated.
Chang (2011) [47] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: no adjustment for severity of illness. Low incidence of NC in sample.
Lee (2014) [48] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: no adjustment for severity of illness.
Mohamed (2014) [49] Serious Serious risk of bias in confounding domain: no adjustment for severity of illness.
  1. Legend: BW Birth weight, GA Gestational age