Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary table of trials

From: RETRACTED ARTICLE: Application of 4% chlorhexidine to the umbilical cord stump of newborn infants in lower income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Design and Sample size Interventions Comparator Primary outcome/Other outcomes
Jamil,2018/Pakistan [20], Trial registration: Not found Hospital-based RCT.
I = 50
C = 50
T = 100
Chlorhexidine (liquid or gel form) were applied once daily for 7 days or till umbilical cord falls off. Dry cord care Presence of omphalitis was recorded as 38% in Dry care and 10% in the chlorhexidine group (p = 0.001)
Lyngdoh, D [18], 2018/ India, Trial registration: CTRI/2017/07/009146. Hospital-based trial
I = 35 (Chlorhexidine)
C = 35 (Dry cord care)
T = 105
He used chlorhexidine 4% as well as human breast milk in intervention arm Dry cord care 4% chlorhexidine is very effective in reducing pathogenic bacteria colonization of the cord
Semrau, 2016/Zambia [13], Trial registration: NCT01241318 Cluster RCT.
Ia=18,450
Cb=19,308
Tc=37,758
Topical application of 4% chlorhexidine once per day until 3 days after cord drop. Clean dry cord care NMRd: 15·2/1000 live birth in IGe
NMR: 13·6/1000 live births CGf
Sazawal, 2016/Tanzania [14], Trial registration: NCT01528852 Community-based RCT.
I = 18,015
C = 18,896
T = 36,911
4% chlorhexidine solution to the cord every day until 3 days after the cord had dropped off. Dry cord care NMR: 10.5/1000 live birth in IG
NMR: 11.7/1000 live births CG
Khairuzzaman, 2015/ Bangladesh [21], Trial registration: Not found Hospital-based RCT. I = 170
C = 170
T = 340
4% chlorhexidine solution Dry cord care The mean cord separation time in newborns of IG was significantly longer than CG (7.44 ± 3.75 Vs 4.83 ± 2.05 p < 0.001).
Mullany, 2013/Bangladesh [19], Trial registration: NCT00434408 Cluster-RCT
I = 17,757
C = 9624
T = 27,381
Three arms IG:
1)4% chlorhexidine,
2) cleansing with soap and water
Dry cord care. Cord separation time
1) Single group: 6.9 ± 2.87 days,
2) Multiple groups: 7.49 ± 3.08 days
3) Dry care: 4.78 ± 1.82 days
Sofi S, 2012/Pakistan [12]; Trial registration: NCT00682006 2X2 factorial, cluster-RCT.
I = 4867
C = 4874
T = 9741
Four arms
1)4% chlorhexidine solution once daily up to 14 days along with soap and educational messages promoting hand washing.
2) The chlorhexidine solution only and
3) Hand washing only.
Dry cord care A reduction in NMR (RR = 0·62, 95% CI 0·45–0·85); risk of omphalitis (RR = 0·58, 95% CI 0·41–0·82; No effect of hand washing for both outcomes
Arifeen, 2012/Bangladesh [11], Trial registration: NCT00434408 Community-based RCT.
I = 19,608
C = 9924
T = 29,532
Three arms:
1) Multiple 4% chlorhexidine cleansing
2) Single 4% chlorhexidine cleansing
Dry cord care NMR = 22·5 per 1000 LB in single chlorhexidine group, 26·6 per 1000 LB among multiple chlorhexidine groups and 28·3 per 1000 LB in dry cord care group.
Mullany L, C,2006/Nepal &Bangladesh [10],
Trial registration: NCT00109616
Cluster-RCT.
I = 4924
C = 5082
T = 10,006
Three arms:
1)4% chlorhexidine,
2) cleansing with soap and water
Dry cord care. Neonatal mortality was 24% lower in the chlorhexidine group (RR = 0·76, [95% CI 0·55–1·04]) than in the DCC group
Severe omphalitis in chlorhexidine clusters was reduced by 75% (incidence rate ratio 0·25, 95% CI 0·12–0·53.
  1. aI Intervention
  2. bC Control
  3. cT Total
  4. dNMR Neonatal Mortality Rate
  5. eIG Intervention Group
  6. fCG Control Group