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Table 5 Relationship of vitamins to maternal health problems

From: Evidence based recommendations for an optimal prenatal supplement for women in the US: vitamins and related nutrients

Vitamin Significant Evidence Limited Evidence
Vitamin A Anemia (Thorne-Lyman 2012 M) [23] Night Blindness (Christian 1998) [46];
Preeclampsia (Ziari 1996) [29];
Eclampsia (Ziari 1996) [29]
Vitamin C Premature Rupture of Membrane (Rumbold 2015 M, Casanueva 2005, Ghomian 2013, Zamani 2013, Kiondo 2014) [56,57,58,59] Abdominal Pain (Rumbold 2008) [20];
Hospitalizations (Hans 2010) [35];
Preeclampsia (Chappell 2002) [55];
Urinary Tract Infection (Ochoa-Brust 2007) [63]
Vitamin D Cesarean section (Merewood 2009, Wagner 2016) [2425];
Preeclampsia (Bodnar 2007, Baca 2016, Haugen 2009, Wagner 2013) [37, 48,49,50]
Hypertension (Wagner 2013, Rumbold 2008) [20, 37];
Infection (Wagner 2013) [37];
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism (Yu 2009) [62]
Vitamin E Premature Rupture of Membrane (Rumbold 2015b M) [56] Eclampsia (Ziari 1996) [29];
Hyperglycemia (Ley 2013) [36];
Insulin Resistance (Ley 2013) [36];
Preeclampsia (Ziari 1996) [29]
Vitamin K   
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)   Glucose Tolerance (Bakker 2000) [81]
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Anemia (Ma 2008, Suprapto 2002) [21, 22];
Night blindness (Christian 1998, Graham 2007) [45, 46]
Hypertension (Elsen 2012) [38];
Preeclampsia (Elsen 2012) [38]
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)   
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)   
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)   Dental Decay(115),
Nausea/Vomiting (Chittumma 2007) [44]
Preeclampsia(115)
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)   
Vitamin B9 (Folate) Megaloblastic Anemia (Lassi 2013 M) [43]  
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Gestational Diabetes (Finkelstein 2015, Yajnik 2008) [30, 31]
Infertility (Jackson 1967, Hall 1968, Bennett 2001) [39,40,41];
Pernicious Anemia (Jackson 1967, Hall 1968) [39, 40];
Preeclampsia (Mardali 2021) [47];
 
Choline   
DHA Depression (Hibbeln 2002, Lin 2017 M, Zhang 2020 M) [26,27,28];
Gestation Diabetes (Gao 2020) [32];
Preeclampsia (Bakouei 2020 M, Kulkarni 2010, Middleton 2018) [51,52,53]
 
Inositol Glucose Levels (Corrado 2011, Papaloe 2011) [33, 34];
Infertility (Carlomagno 2011, Papaloe 2011) [34, 42]
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (Papaleo 2011) [34];
Gestational Diabetes (Corrado 2011) [33]