Skip to main content

Table 6 Relationship of maternal vitamin status to infant health problems

From: Evidence based recommendations for an optimal prenatal supplement for women in the US: vitamins and related nutrients

Vitamin Significant Evidence Limited Evidence
Vitamin A   Heart Defects (Shaw 2010) [84];
Orofacial Defects (Krapels 2004) [120];
Impaired Lung Function (Checkley 2010) [94]
Vitamin C   Wheeze (McEvoy 2014) [68];
Low Birth Weight (Haggarty 2009) [74];
Orofacial Clefts (Krapels 2004) [120];
Infant Pulmonary Function (McEvoy 2014) [68]
Vitamin D Autism (Vinkhuyzen 2018, Fernell 2015) [70, 71];
Preterm Birth (Wagner 2016, Wagner 2015 M, Wagner 2013) [24, 128];
Asthma/Wheeze (Beckhaus 2015, Zosky 2014, Wolsk 2017) [65,66,67]
Miscarriage (Andersen 2015) [98];
Language Difficulties (Whitehouse 2012) [92];
Psychomotor Skills (Morales 2012) [124]
Vitamin E Congenital Heart Defects (Smedts 2009, Shaw 2010) [84, 85];
Orofacial Clefts (MISSING, Krapels 2004) [120]
Preterm Birth (Bartfai 2012) [123];
Placental Abruption (Rumbold 2015a R) [56];
Wheeze (Beckhaus 2015 M) [65]
 
Vitamin K Vitamin K Deficient Bleeding (Often intercranial hemorrhage) (AAP 2015, Crowther 2001) [127]  
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)   Anencephaly (Chandler 2012) [117];
Low Birth Weight (Bakker 2000) [81];
Intrauterine growth retardation (Heinze 1990) [91];
Learning Disabilities (Bell 1979) [122]
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)   Low Birth Weight (Haggarty 2009) [74];
Birth defects (Robitaille 2009) [125];
Heart defects (Shaw 2010) [84]
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)   Spina Bifida (Groenen 2004),
Heart Defect (Shaw 2010) [84];
Birth Weight (Baker 1977) [75]
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) Low Birth Weight (Lagiou 2005, Watson 2010, Haggarty 2009, Baker 1977) [74,75,76,77]  
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Birth Weight (Chang 1999, Ronnenberg 2002) [78, 79] Orofacial Defect (Krapels 2004) [120];
Neurodevelopmental Behavior Problem (McCullough 1990) [119];
Cardiovascular Malformation (Czeizel 2004) [83];
Preterm Birth (Ronnenberg 2002) [78]
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)   Orofacial Defect (Takechi 2008) [121]
Vitamin B9 (Folate) Cleft Lip/Palate Defect (Goh 2006 M) [111]
Heart Defects (Goh 2006 M) [111]
Limb Defects (Goh 2006 M) [111]
Neural Tube Defects (Berry 1999; Czeizel 1992; Goh 2006 M, Kirke 1992; Laurence 1981; MRC 1991; Toriello 2005; Vergel 1990; Werler 1993, Wilson 2015) [103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112]
Autism (Li 2019) [69];
Small for Gestational Age (Hodgetts 2015 M) [126]
Preterm Birth (Li 2019) [69]
Severe Language Delay (Roth 2011) [93]
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Heart defect (Shaw 2010, Finkelstein 2015 R) [31, 84]
Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Finkelstein 2015 R) [31]
Low birth weight (Finkelstein 2015, Rogne 2017 M) [31, 80]
Miscarriage (Reznikoff-Etiévant 2002 M, Hubner 2008) [96, 97]
Neural Tube Defects (Finkelstein 2015 R, Mills 1995, Molloy 2009, Ray 2007, Wald 1996) [31, 99,100,101,102]
Preterm birth (Rogne 2017 M) [80]
Small for Gestational Age (Finkelstein 2015 R) [31]
Spontaneous Abortion (Finkelstein 2015 R) [31]
Memory (Finkelstein 2015) [31];
Insulin resistance (Finkelstein 2015) [31]
Autism (Raghavan 2018, Hollowood 2020) [72, 73]
Choline   Alzheimer’s (Strupp 2016) [64]
Down Syndrome (Strupp 2016) [64]
Memory Scores (Boeke 2013) [95]
Neural Tube defects (Shaw 2010) [84]
DHA Brain Development
Gestational Length (Carlson 2013, Ciesielski 2019, Harris 2015, Middleton 2018 M, Miller 2006, Olsen 2000, Smuts 2003) [51, 82, 86,87,88,89,90]
Macrosomia (Goa 2020) [32];
Preterm Birth (Carlson 2013, Ciesielski 2019, Harris 2015, Middleton 2018 M, Miller 2006, Olsen 2000) [51, 82, 86,87,88, 90]
Hyperbilirubinemia (Goa 2020) [32]
Psychomotor skills
Gestational Size (Carlson 2013) [82]
Leanness
Perinatal Death (Middleton 2018) [51]
Neonatal Care Admissions (Middleton 2018) [51]
Wheeze
Inositol Neural tube defects (Greene 2016, Greene 2017, Guan 2014, Cavalli 2011) [113,114,115,116]
Spina Bifida (Groenen 2004, Guan 2014) [114]