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Table 6 Relationship of maternal vitamin status to infant health problems

From: Evidence based recommendations for an optimal prenatal supplement for women in the US: vitamins and related nutrients

Vitamin

Significant Evidence

Limited Evidence

Vitamin A

 

Heart Defects (Shaw 2010) [84];

Orofacial Defects (Krapels 2004) [120];

Impaired Lung Function (Checkley 2010) [94]

Vitamin C

 

Wheeze (McEvoy 2014) [68];

Low Birth Weight (Haggarty 2009) [74];

Orofacial Clefts (Krapels 2004) [120];

Infant Pulmonary Function (McEvoy 2014) [68]

Vitamin D

Autism (Vinkhuyzen 2018, Fernell 2015) [70, 71];

Preterm Birth (Wagner 2016, Wagner 2015 M, Wagner 2013) [24, 128];

Asthma/Wheeze (Beckhaus 2015, Zosky 2014, Wolsk 2017) [65,66,67]

Miscarriage (Andersen 2015) [98];

Language Difficulties (Whitehouse 2012) [92];

Psychomotor Skills (Morales 2012) [124]

Vitamin E

Congenital Heart Defects (Smedts 2009, Shaw 2010) [84, 85];

Orofacial Clefts (MISSING, Krapels 2004) [120]

Preterm Birth (Bartfai 2012) [123];

Placental Abruption (Rumbold 2015a R) [56];

Wheeze (Beckhaus 2015 M) [65]

 

Vitamin K

Vitamin K Deficient Bleeding (Often intercranial hemorrhage) (AAP 2015, Crowther 2001) [127]

 

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

 

Anencephaly (Chandler 2012) [117];

Low Birth Weight (Bakker 2000) [81];

Intrauterine growth retardation (Heinze 1990) [91];

Learning Disabilities (Bell 1979) [122]

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

 

Low Birth Weight (Haggarty 2009) [74];

Birth defects (Robitaille 2009) [125];

Heart defects (Shaw 2010) [84]

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

 

Spina Bifida (Groenen 2004),

Heart Defect (Shaw 2010) [84];

Birth Weight (Baker 1977) [75]

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Low Birth Weight (Lagiou 2005, Watson 2010, Haggarty 2009, Baker 1977) [74,75,76,77]

 

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Birth Weight (Chang 1999, Ronnenberg 2002) [78, 79]

Orofacial Defect (Krapels 2004) [120];

Neurodevelopmental Behavior Problem (McCullough 1990) [119];

Cardiovascular Malformation (Czeizel 2004) [83];

Preterm Birth (Ronnenberg 2002) [78]

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

 

Orofacial Defect (Takechi 2008) [121]

Vitamin B9 (Folate)

Cleft Lip/Palate Defect (Goh 2006 M) [111]

Heart Defects (Goh 2006 M) [111]

Limb Defects (Goh 2006 M) [111]

Neural Tube Defects (Berry 1999; Czeizel 1992; Goh 2006 M, Kirke 1992; Laurence 1981; MRC 1991; Toriello 2005; Vergel 1990; Werler 1993, Wilson 2015) [103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112]

Autism (Li 2019) [69];

Small for Gestational Age (Hodgetts 2015 M) [126]

Preterm Birth (Li 2019) [69]

Severe Language Delay (Roth 2011) [93]

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Heart defect (Shaw 2010, Finkelstein 2015 R) [31, 84]

Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Finkelstein 2015 R) [31]

Low birth weight (Finkelstein 2015, Rogne 2017 M) [31, 80]

Miscarriage (Reznikoff-Etiévant 2002 M, Hubner 2008) [96, 97]

Neural Tube Defects (Finkelstein 2015 R, Mills 1995, Molloy 2009, Ray 2007, Wald 1996) [31, 99,100,101,102]

Preterm birth (Rogne 2017 M) [80]

Small for Gestational Age (Finkelstein 2015 R) [31]

Spontaneous Abortion (Finkelstein 2015 R) [31]

Memory (Finkelstein 2015) [31];

Insulin resistance (Finkelstein 2015) [31]

Autism (Raghavan 2018, Hollowood 2020) [72, 73]

Choline

 

Alzheimer’s (Strupp 2016) [64]

Down Syndrome (Strupp 2016) [64]

Memory Scores (Boeke 2013) [95]

Neural Tube defects (Shaw 2010) [84]

DHA

Brain Development

Gestational Length (Carlson 2013, Ciesielski 2019, Harris 2015, Middleton 2018 M, Miller 2006, Olsen 2000, Smuts 2003) [51, 82, 86,87,88,89,90]

Macrosomia (Goa 2020) [32];

Preterm Birth (Carlson 2013, Ciesielski 2019, Harris 2015, Middleton 2018 M, Miller 2006, Olsen 2000) [51, 82, 86,87,88, 90]

Hyperbilirubinemia (Goa 2020) [32]

Psychomotor skills

Gestational Size (Carlson 2013) [82]

Leanness

Perinatal Death (Middleton 2018) [51]

Neonatal Care Admissions (Middleton 2018) [51]

Wheeze

Inositol

Neural tube defects (Greene 2016, Greene 2017, Guan 2014, Cavalli 2011) [113,114,115,116]

Spina Bifida (Groenen 2004, Guan 2014) [114]