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Table 4 Final Item Placements and Factor Loadings for Principal Component Analysis with Varimax Rotation of the NeoEAT – Mixed Feeding

From: Neonatal Eating Assessment Tool - Mixed Breastfeeding and Bottle-Feeding (NeoEAT - Mixed Feeding): factor analysis and psychometric properties

Subscale NeoEAT – mixed feeding item (All items begin with “My baby …”) Factor loadings
Gastrointestinal Tract Function 27 items Cronbach’s α .91 seems uncomfortable after feeding. .68
spits up in between feedings. .63
chokes or coughs during eating. .62
is uncomfortable if laid flat after eating. .60
becomes stiff/rigid during or after eating. .59
throws up in between feedings. .59
coughs in between feedings. .58
throws up during feeding. .58
spits up during feeding. .57
is very gassy. .56
becomes upset during feeding (whines, cries, gets fussy). .56
sounds gurgly or like they need to cough or clear their throat during or after eating. .56
coughs or chokes on saliva/spit when not eating. .55
arches back during or after eating. .53
gags in between feedings when there is nothing in his/her mouth. .49
gets a bloated (big or hard) tummy after eating. .49
needs to be burped more than once before the end of feeding. .49
tilts head back during or after eating. .48
gets a stuffy nose when eating. .45
gulps when eating (swallows loudly). .44
gets the hiccups. .43
drools milk out of the side of the mouth when feeding. .40
gets watery eyes when eating. .39
gets red color around eyes or face when eating. .39
gags on a pacifier or toys put in mouth. .39
gags on the bottle nipple. .33
turns red in face, may cry with stooling/pooping. .38
Infant Regulation 11 items Cronbach’s α .86 eats enough to have at least 5 wet diapers per day (24 h). .88
is satisfied after eating. .86
is easy to console when upset (for example, stops crying when held or offered a pacifier). .80
roots when hungry (for example, sucks on fist, smacks lips, looks for breast/bottle). .79
is calm and relaxed when eating. .77
lets me know when he/she is done eating. .70
stools/poops at least once per day (24 h). .61
likes to put fingers and/or toys in mouth. .57
sucks strong enough to get milk from the bottle. .53
sucks strong enough to get milk from the breast. .42
sleeps well lying flat on his/her back. .39
Energy & Physiologic Stability 13 items Cronbach’s α .81 gets exhausted during eating and is not able to finish. .67
is exhausted after eating. .56
can only suck a few times before needing to take a break. .55
needs to be encouraged to keep eating (such as, by touching or talking). .52
needs tube feedings. .50
gets pale or blue color around lips when eating. .48
needs to rest during eating to catch his/her breath. .47
takes more than 30 min to eat (including rest/burping periods). .47
breathes faster or harder when eating. .45
holds breath when eating. .44
eats more than 12 times per day (24 h). .37
wants to eat again within an hour after feeding. .30
sweats/gets clammy when eating. .30
Sensory Responsiveness 7 items Cronbach’s α .77 chews or bites on the nipple (bottle) when he/she should be sucking. .66
will only eat if food (milk/formula/baby food) is a certain temperature. .66
will only eat from a specific kind of bottle/nipple. .62
will only take the bottle from specific people (such as, by mom). .57
refuses the bottle before having eaten enough (such as, turns head, pushes bottle away, pushes nipple out of mouth with tongue). .54
needs help latching on to the bottle. .45
will only eat if fed in a certain way (for example, in a certain chair, or held upright). .34
Feeding Flexibility 10 items Cronbach’s α .79 is happy to eat from either the bottle or breast. .66
will eat expressed breastmilk that has been frozen and reheated. .65
needs help latching on to the breast (for example, needs a nipple shield or positioning help). .59
refuses the breast before having eaten enough (such as, turns head, pushes breast away, pushes nipple out of mouth with tongue). .57
chews or bites on the nipple (breast) when he/she should be sucking. .56
has a hard time handling how fast milk comes out of the breast (for example, chokes, coughs, gags, or pulls off the breast). .56
prefers bottle-feeding over breastfeeding. .55
prefers breastfeeding over bottle-feeding. .51
needs a bottle after breastfeeding. .50
gags on the breast. .46